Regole Nomi e aggettivi: -o m.s., n.s. -a f.s. -i m.p., n.s. -e f.p. Verbi: -r presente, infinito leger: leggo, sto leggendo, leggere -d passato perfetto leged: lessi -t passato imperfetto leget: stavo leggendo, leggevo -l futuro legel: leggerò -v aoristo, imperativo legev: leggi Pronomi - personali e riflessivi: ego, to, eo / ea, ni, vi, eli - possessivi: meo / mea / mei / mee, tuo / tua / tui / tue, suo / sua / sui / sue, noso / nosa / nosi / nose, voso / vosa / vosi / vose, elro / elra / elri / elre - dimostrativo: esto / esta / esti / este, ello / ella / elli / elle - relativi: quo / qua / qui / que (che, il quale, i quali) - indefinito: quido / quidi, omni (invariabile), nemo, nullo - numerali cardinali: uno, doi, tri, quadri, penti, sei, septi, octi, novi, deci, deciuni, decidoi, decitri ... dodeci, dodeciuni ... trideci ... - numerali ordinali: im + numerale - qualificativi: usano sostantivi (es. Che libro vuoi? Quello nuovo -> Quo libro opter? Novo) Preposizioni - im: di, in, dentro (soggetto im oggetto -> in / dentro, oggetto im soggetto -> di) - cum: con, assieme - om: per, tra, lungo - am: a - lam: da Avverbi * modo - nome f.p. + g * tempo - nug: ora, adesso - neg: mai - sempeg: sempre - anteg: prima, davanti - posteg: dopo, dopo * luogo - ilig: in quel luogo (lì, là) - ibig: in questo luogo (qui, qua) - supeg: sopra - infeg: sotto - intrag: dentro - extrag: fuori - apug: presso - alieg: altrove - utreg: oltre * quantità - exig: poco - plug: molto - adeg: tanto - nimig: troppo - sicug: quasi * affermativi (congiunzioni) - idec: sì - nonec: no, non * dubitativi - se: sic (congiunzione) - utig: forse, magari * interrogativi - cuig: chi - comog: come - quodeg: cosa - ubig: dove - quadog: quando - quatog: quanto - quideg: perché * presentativi - eceg: ecco, riecco Congiunzioni * coordinanti: copulative: - ec: e - etac: anche - neac: neanche disgiuntive: - vec: o avversative: - sec: ma causali: - enic: infatti conclusive: - itac: dunque - idec: perciò correttive: - quic: anzi * subordinanti: finali: - uc: affinché - nuc: affinché non consecutive: - esec: così causali: - pec: perché temporali: - donec: finché - siac: (non) appena (che) - antec: prima che / di - postec: dopo che / di condizionali: - sic: se - nisic: se non concessive: - etsic: anche se, se anche, sebbene comparative: - utic: come - utsic: come se Semplificate: - ec: e, anche - vec: o - sec: ma, anzi - sic: se, come, come se - nonec: no, non - idec: sì, perciò, dunque, quindi, infatti - pec: perché, affinché, finché - antec: prima che / di - postec: dopo che / di Sostantivi e aggettivi da verbi, es.: Verbo a sostantivo: da infinito rimuovere suffisso vocale ed 'r', aggiungere 'o' Sostantivo ad aggettivo: ad infinito aggiungere 'o' eser -> eso -> esero (essere, ciò che è, esistente) abundar -> abundo -> abundaro (abbondare, abbondanza, abbondante) admoner -> admono -> admonero (ammonire, ammonitore, ammonito) agnoscer -> agnosco -> agnoscero (conoscere, conoscenza, conosciuto) cader -> cado -> cadero (cadere, caduta, cadente) mitter -> mitto -> mittero (inviare, lettera, inviato) Dizionario * verbi base aber: avere advenir: venire ager: fare caper: prendere collocar: mettere conser: conservare, mantenere dator: dare dicer: dire discer: lasciare eser: essere mitter: inviare, mandare vader: andare videor: sembrare vider: vedere A abducer : togliere, sottrarre aber : andare via, sparire, cambiare abscondito : nascosto abser : mancare, assentare absorber : assorbire absque : senza abster : pulire abundar : abbondare abundo : abbondante acceder : avvicinare, entrare accender : accendere, infiammare accepto : benvenuto, benvoluto acciper : ricevere accommer : aggiustare, adattare, personalizzare accusor : accusare accuso : accusato acer : esser pronto, preparato, attivo acerbo : acerbo acido : acido acquir : ottenere, acquisire adder : aggiungere, unire, dare affer : prendere, portare adficer : affliggere, danneggiare, ferire adiuvar : aiutare, assistere administratio : amministrazione, governo admiror : ammirare, meravigliarsi admitter : ricevere, ammettere admoner : ammonire, avvisare admono : avviso adopter : adottare, accogliere adstringer : obbligare assuer : far crescere, coltivare adsumer : assistere adsumer : assumere, convocare adulater : adulare adulesco : adolescente adulto : adulto, maturi aduster : dar fuoco, bruciare advenir : venire, arrivare adverser : contrastare, avversare adverso : contro adverter : avvertire, chiamare advocar : convocare edificio : edificio aegro : malato, insano aero : aria, atmosfera equo : equo, uguale estivo : estivo eterno : eterno, senza fine agro : campo aggredir : attaccare, aggredire agnitor : riconoscere, identificare agnoscer : conoscere, capire agnosco : to recognize, understand, perceive. ager : invecchiare, vivere, passare il tempo alienar : alienare, estraniare aliquo : qualcuno aliquando : qualche volta aliquanto : qualcosa, in parte alter : cambiare, modificare alto : alto alver : inbustare, mettere in un cesto o scatola amaro : amaro ambito : argomento, confine o intorno ambular : camminare, passeggiare amico : amico amissio : perdita amito : zio amitter : perdere, abbandonare, lasciare, dismettere, mandare via, spedire amor : amare amover : muovere via, spostare, rimuovere ampliar : ampliare, allargare, aumentare amplitudo : ampiezza, taglia amplio : ampio, largo, spazioso angusto : angusto, stretto, limitato animo : animo, spirito, coraggio, carattere anno : anno antiquo : antico, vecchio aper : aprire, scoprire, rivelare aperto : aperto apparato : apparato, macchinario appar : apparire, manifestarsi appellar : chiamare, nominare apposito : apposito, vicino approbar : approvare apter : adattare, aggiustare apto : adatto, appropriato aqua : acqua ara : altare araneo : ragnatela arbitror : arbitrare, testimoniare arbo : albero arbusto : arbusto, cespuglio arcer : tirare con l'arco, colpire arco : arco argento : argento argumento : argomento, evidenza arguir : render chiaro, dimostrare, capire armario : armadio armo : arma armor : armare aro : aratro aror : arare artiso : arte, tecnica artificio : artificio aspero : aspro, severo, impegnativo asperito : asperità, difficoltà aspicor : guardare a, vedere aspor : asportare assentor : assentire, concordare astro : astro, stella atavo : antenato atrocito : atrocità, crudeltà atroco : atroce atter : mettere a terra aucto : autore, origine aucter : crescere, aumentare audax : bold audentia : boldness, courage. auder : osare audir : udire, ascoltare aufer : portar via auger : crescere aureo : oro auro : orecchio auxilio : aiuto avarito : avarità avaro : avaro aver : tornare, deviare, cambiar strada avocar : chiamare B barba : barba bardo : bardo bardoso : stupido basio : bacio beato : beato, fortunato bellico : marziale bello : guerra beno : bene melio : migliore optim : (il) meglio beneficio : beneficio, vantaggio benigno : benigno besto : bestia biber : bere blandir : lusingare blandio : lusinga bono : buono bovo : bue, mucca brevo : corto brevito : brevità C cader : cadere calamito : calamità, disastro calamo : calamaio calcaro : sperone calcar : calpestare calcolo : calcolo (renale) callido : esperto, ingegnoso campano : campana candido : candido, chiaro cano : cane canonico : canonico cantar : cantare capillo : capello capito : capitale capitolo : capitolo captor : prendere, catturare caputo : testa, cima carbo : carbone carcero : prigione, carcere carer : mancare di cario : marciume carioso : marcio carito : carità carpor : carpire, prendere, staccare caro : costoso, amato cassar : bocciare casto : casto, puro caso : caso, evento accidentale, destino cateno : catena catervo : caterva, massa, folla catto : gatto causo : causa, ragione cauto : cauto cavito : cavità, buco, pozzo cavo : cavo, corda ceco : cieco celesto : celeste celo : cielo ceder : andar via, arrendersi, cedere celar : celare, nascondere celebro : celebre, famoso celero : veloce celerito : velocità ceno : cena cenor : cenare censuro : censura censuror : censurare centum : (indecl.) one hundred, 100. cerno : to separate, sift, distinguish / decide, resolve, determine. cernuus : falling headlong. certe certo : (adv) certainly, assuredly. certo : to contend, settle, dispute, to settle by combat. certus : undoubted, certain, sure. certus : settled, resolved, decided / definite, certain, sure. cervus : stag, deer cetera : for the rest, otherwise ceteri : the remaining, the rest, the others ceterum : (adv.) otherwise, moreover, but. ceterus : the other, the rest. charisma carisma : gift, present. chirographum : autograph, person's own handwriting / written charter. cibo : food for animals cibus : food for men and animals. cicuta : hemlock. cilicium : (? Herimann, p. 311) cimentarius : mason? ciminatio : accusation, calumny, charge. ciminosus : reproachful, slanderous. cinis cineris : ashes, embers. circumvenio : to come around, surround, cheat, defraud. circumvenio : to beset, assail. cito: quickly, rapidly, speedily. civilis : civil, civic. civis : citizen, townsman, bourgeois, burgess. civitas : state, citizenship, city-state. clam : secretly, in secret. clamo : to call, shout, cry aloud, proclaim, declare. clamor : loud shouting, cry. claro : to make bright or clear, make clear in the mind. clarus : clear, bright / renowned, famous, illustrious claudeo : to limp, halt, be lame, to hobble. claudo (clausus) : to confine, shut up, close, blockade, besiege. claudus : lame. claustrum : bolt, bar, prison, den, pen, enclosure / cloister. clementia : indulgence, forbearance, humanity, mercy, gentleness, etc. clibanus : oven, furnace / tray for bread making. coadunatio : a gathering together, a summing up, a uniting. coaegresco : to become sick at the same time. codo : coda coepi : (pres. incipio ) : began, started, undertook, initiated. coerceo : surround, enclose, restrain, confine. cogito : to think, ruminate, ponder, consider, plan. cognatus : (adj.) related by blood (noun) a relative, kinsman. cognomen : surname, family name, nick-name. cognosco : to examine, inquire, learn. cogo, coegi, coactum : to compel, restrict, confine. cogo, coegi, coactum : to bring together, drive, draw. cohaero cohero cohesi cohesum : to adhere, stick together cohibeo : confine, restrain, hold back, repress. cohors : a yard, enclosure / troop, 1 / 10 of a legion. cohortor : to encourage, incite, exhort. colligo : to gather together, collect, assemble. colloco : to place, put, arrange. collum : neck. colo colui cultum : cultivate, cherish color : color. coloratus : colored / dark-complexioned. coloro : to color. coma : hair of the head, leaves, rays of light. combibo : to drink up, suck in. comburo : to burn up, to ruin, consume. comedo comedi comesum : to eat up, consume / waste, squander. comes comitis : companion, friend, comrade / count. cometes : comet cometissa comitissa : countess. comis : courteous, kind, friendly. comitatus : train, retinue, following / war band. comiter : courteously, in a kindly, friendly manner. comitto : to entrust, commit. commemoro : to remind, relate, mention. commeo : To go up and down, back and forth, in and out. commessatio, onis : eating together. comminor : to threaten. comminuo : to scatter, weaken, damage. comminus : hand to hand, in close combat. commisceo : to intermingle, join, mix. commissum : undertaking, that which is entrusted. commodo : (+ acc.) to furnish, lend, give. commodo : to make fit, adapt, please, oblige, serve. commodum : suitable time, opportunity, convenience, use. commodum : convenience, advantage, opportunity, comfort. commoneo : to remind someone forcibly of something. commoneo : to remember, recollect. commoneo : to impress upon one. to remind. commoveo : to move violently, disturb, shake / excite, upset. communis : common, general, run of the mill. comparo : to compare. compater : the godfather of a man's child. compatior : to suffer with one, feel pity, have compassion. compello : to drive together, collect, force, compel. comperio : to disclose wholly, lay open / learn, find out. comperio : to disclose fully, find out with certainty. comperte : on good authority. compes, compedis : fetters, shackles, chained. compes : fetters, shackles, chains. competo : to be appropriate, suitable, fit. complectus : embrace, grasp. compleo : to finish. compleo : to fill up, man, bring up to strength, fulfill. compono : to put together, compose. compositio : composition, agreement, pact / arrangement. compositus : orderly, matching, made up of pieces. comprehendo : to seize, arrest, take prisoner, catch red-handed. comprehendo : to grasp, take together, unite / comprehend. comprehendo : to embrace, take firmly, include, seize. comprobo : to approve fully / to confirm, prove, establish. comprovincialis : born in the same province. comptus : a head-dress, a hairband. conatus : exertion, effort / undertaking / impulse, inclination. concedo : to concede, yield, allow, grant, withdraw, give up. concepta : measures, capacity. concero : connect join, twine, join in conflict. concido : to fall down, sink, perish / (wind) subside. concido : to be ruined, fail / cut up, cut down, destroy. concilium : council concipio : to take or lay hold of, receive, take in. concisus : cut up, broken, brief, concise. concito : to move violently, stir up, excite. conculco : to tread under foot, despise, oppress, suppress. concupiscentia : avarice, covetousness. concupisco : to covet, aim at, desire eagerly. concutio : to shake, disturb, agitate. concutio : to shake together, agitate, alarm, disturb, shatter. Condato : Cond. condico : to agree, fix, settle, make arrangements. conduco : hire, employ for wages, among many other meanings. confero : to bring together, put together, collect / confero : discuss, debate, confer / betake oneself, devote. confestim : immediately, without delay. confido : have confidence in, be confident of, rely upon. confiteor confessus : to confess, own up, admit, acknowledge. conforto : to strengthen much. confugo : to flee, have recourse to, take refuge. congregatio : assembly, society, union. congrego : to gather together, assemble, convene. congruus : agreeing, fit, suitable. conicio : to hurl, throw / put together, conjecture. coniecto : to throw together, infer, guess, conclude. conitor : to press upon, to struggle to reach coniuratio : conspiracy, plot. coniuratus : conspirator, plotter. coniuro : to take an oath together, plot, conspire. conor : to undertake, try, venture, presume, attempt. conqueror : to complain loudly. conscendo : to ascend, mount, go up. conscientia : conscience, consciousness, knowledge conscindo : to tear in pieces. conscius : conscious of, aware of. conservo : to preserve, conserve, maintain, keep, hold to. considero : to look at, regard carefully, consido : to set down, settle. consilio : intentionally, on purpose, designedly. consilium : deliberation, consultation, assembly, council. consilium : advice, suggestion, wisdom, plan, purpose, judgment. consisto : (+ in) to depend on, rely on. consisto : to take one's stand, stand still, stop, be posted. consisto : (+ abl. etc.) to be formed of, consist / stop, stay. consitor : sower, planter. conspergo : to sprinkle, bestrew. conspicio : to catch sight of, perceive, behold, understand. constans : steady, firm, unchanging, constant, unwavering. constanter : steadily, firmly. constituo : to set up, place, establish, post, station. constituo : to arrange, decide, appoint, settle, found, set up. consto : to be established, stand firm, stop, endure. constringo constrixi constrictum : to bind, confine, restrain. construo construxi constructum : to construct, build, arrange. constupator : ravisher, debaucher. constupro : to ravish, corrupt. consuasor : advisor, counselor. consuefacio : to accustom, acclimate, become used to. consuesco : to accustom, inure, habituate consueta : customary, usual. consuetudo : custom, usage, habit / intimacy, familiar acquaintance. consulatio : deliberation, inquiry, full consideration. consulo : to reflect, consider, ponder, reflect. consulo : (+ dat.) look to the interests of / consult, ask advice. consulo : to look to the interests of, come to a conclusion. consulto : to ask the advice of, consult. consulto : to consider carefully, weigh, ponder. consultum : decree. consummatio : completion, summing up, adding up. consummo : to add together, sum up, make perfect, complete. consumo : to spend, employ, use up, finish, waste away, destroy. consuo consui consutum : to sew together, stitch. consurgo : to stand up, rise up / to arise, break out. contabesco : to waste slowly away, decline in health. contactus : touching, contact / contagion. contages : a touch, contact. contagio contagium : contagion, infection / touching, contact. contamino : to pollute, infect. contego : to cover, shield, protect, defend. contemno : to think meanly of, despise, condemn, hate. contemplatio : survey, contemplation. contemplor : to mark out, regard, consider carefully, survey. contemptim : contemptuously. contemptio : scorn, disdain, contempt. contemptus : despised, despicable, contemptible. contendo : to compare, contrast / compete. contendo : to contend, strive, struggle, hasten. contendo : to assert, maintain / shoot (a missile), cast. contente : eagerly, earnestly. contentus : contented, satisfied contentus : strained, stretched / eager, zealous. contigo : (with dat.), to happen, befall. contineo : to touch, reach, grasp, affect, infect. contineo contigi, contectum : border on / befall (good luck). contineo : to keep in, surround, contain, confine, include. contineo : hold together, keep together, connect, join. contineo: to hold back, restrain. contingo : (contactum) to touch closely, happen to, befall. continuo : (adv.) immediately, at once. continuus : connected together, continuous, uninterrupted. contra : (+ acc.) against. contradictio : a speaking against, contradiction. contrado : to deliver together, or wholly. contraho : to draw together, collect, assemble, carry out. contristo : to make sad or gloomy contristo : to sadden, afflict, damage (of crops). conturbo : to confuse, scatter, throw into confusion, distress. conventus : coming together, assembly, union, congress. conversatio : way, manner of life / monastic life. converto : to turn around, cause to turn / to adopt the monastic life. convoco : to call together, convene. copia : abundance, supply. copiae copie : supplies, troops, forces. copiose : fully, at length, copiously. Corbeiam : Corbie. cornu : horn. corona : crown, diadem. corpus corporis : body, corpse. correptius : more shortly. corrigo : (correctum) : to make correct, make right. corripio : to seize, snatch up, steal, (of a disease) attack corroboro : to strengthen. corrumpo : to break up, destroy, annihilate / spoil, weaken. corrumpo : (documents) to falsify / (character) to corrupt. corruo : to fall to the ground, sink down / be ruined, destroyed. Corturiacum : Courtrai. coruscus : (a) flashing, twinkling, shaking, trembling. cotidie : daily, every day. Courtacum : Courtrai. crapula : wine-drinking, intoxication, drunkenness. cras : (adv.) tomorrow, on the morrow. crastinus : of the morrow, the morrow. creator : creator, founder. creatura : creature, servant. creber : thick, frequent, numerous. crebro : repeatedly, often, one after the other, time after time. credo : to believe / trust, commit / trust in, rely on / think. creo : to create, make. creptio : taking by force, seizure. crepusculum : dusk, twilight. cresco : (cretum) : to grow, increase, expand. creta : chalk, fuller's earth. cribro : to sift. cribrum : sieve. crinis : hair. crinitus : long haired. cruciamentum : torture, torment. crucio : to torture, torment. crudelis : cruel. cruentus : to make bloody, stain with blood. cruentus : bloody, bloodthirsty, blood-red. crur, cruris : leg, shank, shin, also foot. crustulum : pastry, cookie. crux crucis : cross. cubicularis : pertaining to a bedroom cubicularius : bed-chamber servant, chamberlain. cubiculum : bedroom, sleeping chamber. cubitum ire : to go to bed, retire cubitum : the elbow / a cubit. cubo : to lie down, recline. cui : (masc. sing. dat.) TO WHOM did you give it? cui : (fem. sing. dat.) IN WHICH (province) did you live? cui : (neut. sing. dat.) (the monster), TO WHOM the cattle belonged. cuius : (neut. sing. gen) (the building) the size OF WHICH was great. cuius : (masc. sing. gen.) (the saint) WHOSE virtues were many. cuius : (fem. sing. gen.) (the queen), the vices OF WHOM were many. cuiusmodi : of what kind. culpa : fault, blame, (esp. against chastity). culpo : to blame, censure, accuse. cultellus : a little knife. cultura : cultivation cum : (prep + abl.) with. cum : (with indicative) when. cum : (with subjunctive) when, as, while, since, although. cunabula : cradle. cunae : nest for young birds. cunctatio : delay. cunctator : delayer, procrastinator, cunctor : to delay, impede, hold up. cunctus : all, all collectively, the whole. cupiditas : ambition, avarice, party spirit, eager desire. cupido : passion, desire, wanting, yearning, longing. cupio : to desire, wish, long for, desire. cuppedia : delicacies, candies, sweetmeats. cupressus : cypress, cypress wood, a cypress-wood casket. cur : why, wherefore. cura : management, administration, care, concern, charge. curatio : attention / medical attention, healing, curing. curator : guardian, overseer curia : court curiositas : curiosity, inquisitiveness, nosiness. curiosus : careful, attentive / curious, inquisitive / worn out by cares. curis quris : a spear. curo : to care for, trouble about, pay attention to. curo : manage, administer / provide money. curo : (+gerundive) to see to a thing being done / cure, rest. curriculum : a running, race, lap around the track, course. currus : cart / a plow with wheels. cursim : hastily, quickly, rapidly. cursito : to run up and down. curso : to run back and forth. cursor : runner, carrier, messenger. cursus : a race, a running, race course, race track, course. curto : to shorten, abbreviate. Curtracus : Courtrai. curtus : shortened / mutilated, defective / gelded. curvo : to bend, arch, curve / influence. curvus : arched, bent, bowed, curved, crooked, wrong (morally crooked). custodia : protection, custody. custodiae custodie : guards, wardens. custos : (custodis) : guardian, keeper, watchman, attendant, guard / spy. D damnatio : condemnation. damno : to condemn, damn. dapifer : seneschal. de : (prep. + abl.) down from, from, concerning, about. debeo : to owe, to be morally bound to, to be bound by. debilito : to weaken, enervate, sap, exhaust. decens, decenter : properly, fittingly, suitably. decerno : to decide, determine, settle. decerto : to contend, fight to the finish. decet : it is seemly, comely, suitable, proper. decimus : tenth. decipio : (deceptus) ensnare, trap, beguile, deceive, cheat. decor : beauty, grace. decoro : beautify, embellish, adorn. decorus : beautiful, graceful, charming, proper, fit, becoming. decretum : decree, judgment, edict, order. decumbo : to fall, fall into, lie down. dedecor : unseemly, shameful, disgraceful, dishonorable. dedecus : shame, dishonor, disgrace, crime, dishonorable act. dedico : to dedicate. deduco : to lad out colonists, found a colony. defaeco : to cleanse, purify, purge. defendo : to defend, ward off, protect, shelter. defero : to hand over, carry down, communicate, offer, refer. defessus : weary, tired. defetiscor (defessus) : to grow tired, weary., deficio : (defectum) : to fail, to weaken, to be in want. defigo : fasten down, secure, fix firmly / concentrate, fix upon. defleo : to weep for, bewail. defleo : to bewail, weep for. defluo : to flow down, waste, disappear. defluo : to flow away, disappear, be lost. defungo : to discharge one's duties, quit, retire, die, finish degenero : to cause to degenerate, disgrace by degeneracy. degenero : to be unlike one's kind, fall off, degenerate. degero : to pass time, live. degusto : to taste. deinde : next, then, thereafter, from that place. delectatio : delight, pleasure, enjoyment. delecto : to attract, delight / (pass + abl) take delight in. delego : to transfer, commit, assign, impute, attribute, ascribe. deleo : (deletum ) to destroy, wipe out, erase. delibero : to consider, deliberate. delicate : luxuriously, delicately, slowly. delicate : (adv.) luxuriously. deliciae : allurements, charms, delights, fancies / sweetheart delinquo : to fail, be wanting / fail in duty, commit a crime. deludo : to mock, cheat. demens : (dementis ) : insane, mad, out of one's mind, foolish. demergo : to sink, plunge into, dip under, go into debt. demitto : set down, let fall (to offer payment to the church), lower. demo : to take away, subtract. demonstro : to indicate, show, describe, explain. demoror : to loiter, linger, tarry, belay. demulceo : to stroke down, caress by stroking. demum : at length at last, finally. denego : to refuse, deny, reject. denique : at last, finally, again, in short. dens : (dentis ) : tooth. denuncio : declare, give notice, announce. denuntio : to announce officially, pronounce, declare. denuo : anew, again, a second time, afresh. deorsum : downwards. depereo : to perish, be utterly ruined. depono : to put down, lay aside. depopulo depopulor : to lay waste, ravage, devastate. deporto : to carry off, to take away. depraedor depredor : to plunder, lay waste, pillage, ravage. deprecator : intercessor, one who pleads on behalf. deprecor : to entreat for, beg for / intercede / curse. deprecor : to beg by entreaty, to excuse oneself / curse. deprehensio : detection. deprimo (depressus) : to press down, depress, low-lying. depromo : to take down, produce, fetch out. depulso : push aside, thrust away. deputo : to count, estimate / prune, cut off. derelinquo : to forsake, desert, abandon. derideo : to laugh at, mock, deride. deripio : to tear down, snatch away. desidero : to long for, wish for greatly, to miss. desidiosus : lazy, unmotivated. desino (desiit) : to leave off, give over, cease, stop, desist. desino : cease, stop, end, desist. desipio : to act foolishly, play the fool, make an ass of one's self. desolo : to leave desolate, abandoned, to forsake. desparatus : given up on / desperate despecto : overlook, despise, look down upon. despero : to have no hope, despair, give up. despero : to be without hope, despair / despair of, give up. despiciens : contemptuous. despicio : to look down, regard from above, despise. desposco : to demand. destinatus : resolute, firm, determined, with one's mind made up. destituo : to set down, place / abandon, leave in the lurch. detego detectum : to uncover, lay bare, disclose. determino : to fix the limits of, set boundaries to, delimit. detineo : hold off, hold back, detain. detrimentum : damage, loss, detriment. deus : god. devenio : to come to, arrive at, reach. devito : to avoid. devoco : to call away, call down, call aside. devotio : (Christian) piety, devotion, zeal. devoveo : to consecrate, sacrifice, devote / curse, execrate. dexter : right, on the right. dextera : the right hand. diabolus : devil, Satan. dico : (dictum ) to say, tell, speak, name, call, pronounce. dictata : things dictated, lessons, presents. dictator : dictator. dictito : to say often, reiterate. dicto : to say often, dictate, get written down. didicerat : (?) Herimann, p. 281. didico : to be told (Herimann cap. 39, 44). dido dididi didtum : to separate, divide, distribute. dies diei : day diffama -tus : spread around, made known. differo : to spread news / delay, defer, postpone. differo : to spread about, spread news / harrass, disturb. differo : to delay, postpone / to differ, be different. differtus : stuffed full, crammed, jammed. difficilis : difficult, hard, troublesome. difficultas : difficulty, need, trouble, distress. digestor : arranger, composer, one who makes a pattern. dignitas : merit, worth, prestige, dignity. dignosco dignosco : to distinguish, recognize as different. dignus : (+ abl.) worthy, worthy of, meritorious. digredior digredi digressus : to depart, deviate, digress. digressio : separation, departure, digression. digressus : separation, departure, digression. dilabor : to break up, scatter, dissolve, slip away, fall apart. dilato : to spread out, extend, expand, increase. dilgenter : attentively, earnestly, carefully, diligently. diligens : diligent, careful. diligentia : diligence, industry, perseverance, persistence. diligo : to choose out, esteem highly, prize, love. diluculo : dawn, daybreak. diluo : (of troubles) to remove, resolve. dimidium : half. dimitto : to break up, dismiss, leave, abandon. directus : plain, simple, direct, open, straightforward. diripio : to tear in pieces, lay waste, devastate, plunder. diripio : to separate, tear apart / pillage, devastate, lay waste. dirunitas : long duration. diruo : to demolish, destroy, ruin. discedo : (discessum ) : to break up, depart, go away, pass away. discidium : separation, division, disagreement, tearing apart. discipulus : disciple, student, learner, pupil. disco : to learn, become acquainted with. discrepo : to differ, to be different, vary, disagree. dispono : to arrange, put in order, draw up (troops). disputatio : debate, dispute, discussion. disputo : discuss. dissero : to examine, treat of, discuss. dissimilis : unlike, different, disparate, dissimilar, distinct. dissimulo : to ignore, leave unnoticed. dissimulo : to conceal, disguise, keep secret. dissolutus : lax, weak, wanting in energy, dissolute, profligate. distinguo : to mark off, distinguish, divide / separate. distribuo : to distribute, divide. districtus (fr. distringo) : strict, severe / hesitating / busy. distulo :(past) to delay [MGHss 25 : 268]. dito : to enrich, make wealthy. diu : by day, for a long time, a long time ago. diu : adv. a long while, long time, for a long time. diutinus : lasting a long time, enduring, long-lived. diutius : longer, too long (a period of time). diuturnus : lasting a long time, of long duration. diversus : different, unlike, opposed, hostile. dives : rich, opulent, wealthy. divinitus : divine influence, admirably, nobly, by inspiration. divinus : divine, sacred. divitiae divitie : riches, wealth. do dare dedi datum : to give, offer, convey, offer, donate, furnish. doceo docui doctum : to instruct, teach, tutor. doctor : teacher. doctrina : doctrine, teaching, instruction, learning. doctus : taught, instructed, learned, tutored. dolens : painfully. doleo : to suffer pain, to be pained, grieve. dolor : pain, grief. misery, pain, suffering. dolose : slyly, deceitfully. dolosus : crafty, cunning, sly, deceitful. dolus : fraud, deceit, guile, treachery, a trap. domesticus : domestic, civil. domina domina : lady, mistress. dominatus : rule, mastery, tyranny, domination. dominus domino : master, lord. domito : to tame, subdue, break in. domus : house, home, residence. donec : up to the time when, until, as long as, while. donum : gift, present, donation. dormio : to sleep, slumber, siesta, nap. dubito : to doubt, hesitate. dubium : doubt, hesitation, reservation. duco : to lead on the march, marry a wife, command. duco : to lead, draw, esteem, consider. duco : to draw, shape, construct / (time) spend, delay. duco : to charm, influence, mislead, draw in. duco : to calculate, count, reckon, esteem, considered. dudum : for a long while, a long while ago, some time age. dulcedo : sweetness, pleasantness, charm. dulcidine : sweetly, pleasantly, charmingly. dulcis : sweet, pleasant, agreeable. dulcitudo dulcitudinis : dum : while, as long as, until. dummodo : (conj. + subj.) provided dumtaxat : at least, not less than / at most, not more than. duo : two duro: to harden, last, endure. durus : hard, harsh, tough, strong,enduring, / rough, rude, uncouth. Dusiol petram : Duissenpierre. dux ducis : leader, guide, commander, general, duke. E eatenus : so far, thus far, up to then. ebullio : to boil up, bubble up, to appear, produce in abundance. ecclesia : church. econtra : the same as contra: against, opposite, etc. ecquando : at any time? ever? edico : to announce, declare. editio : the publishing of a book, an announcement. edo : put forth, give out. edo edi essum : to eat, consume, devour, waste. edoceo : to inform fully, instruct thoroughly. educo : to draw out, lead out, march out / bring up, rear / sue. effectus : doing, execution, performance, effect, result. effero extuli elatum : to carry out, bury, lift up, exalt. effervo : to boil up. efficio : to do, produce, effect, make / bring about, cause / prove. effringo effrego : break, break open. effugio : (effugi effugiturus ) : flee from, escape, elude, run away. effundo : to pour out, pour forth, shed, utter. egenus : in want of, in need of, destitute. egeo : to need, lack, want, be without. ego : I ; I can't live without you, baby. egredior : (egressus ) : to go out, leave, depart, exit. eicio eiectum : to throw out, eject, drive out. elatus : puff-up, proud of oneself, arrogant. electus : chosen, select. elementum : first principle, element, basic constituent. elemosina : alms elemosinarius : almoner, person in charge of providing charity. eligo : to pick out, select, choose. eloquens : eloquent, persuasive, fluent. eloquentia : eloquence, readiness of speech, fluency, persuasiveness. eluo : to wash out, rinse cleanse / squander, waste. eluvies : a flowing over, flood, innundation. eluvio : inundation. emanio : to flow out, spread / arise, emanate, originate. emendo : to amend, correct emercor : to buy up. emerio : to obtain by service, earn completely, deserve well. emineo : to stand out, project, be remarkable, conspicuous. eminor : to threaten, menace. eminus : at a distance, from a distance. emiror : to wonder at exceedingly. emo emi emptum : to buy, purchase. emoveo : to move away, remove, take away. emptio : a buying, a purchase. enim : for, in fact, truly (may often be omitted) enumero : to count, count up, enumerate. eo ire itum : to go, advance, proceed, travel, move along, progress. episcopalis : episcopal episcopus : bishop epistula : letter, epistle, missive, message. epulo : sumptuous food, banquet, feast. epulor : to feast, feast on. eques equitis : horseman, cavalry man rider (classical). equidem : (adv) indeed, truly, for my part. equitatus : cavalry, horsemen (classical). equus : horse, steed, mount. erepo : to creep out, creep over, creep up. erga : (+ acc.) toward, about. ergo : (gen. +) on account of, because of. ergo : (adv.) accordingly, then, therefore. eripio : (eripui ereptum ) : to snatch away, take away, rescue. erogo : to pay out. erogo : to pay out, expend, disburse. erro : to wander, stray, rove / be mistaken, err, go astray. error : error, mistake, going astray. erubesco : to blush, grow red, be ashamed. erubesco : (+ inf.) to blush to, (+acc.) blush for, respect. erudio : to instruct, teach, educate. eruo : to dig up, pull out / raze, demolish. esurio : to be hungry, to hunger. et ... et : both ... and. etenim : for indeed. etiam : (adv.) even, also. etsi : (acsi) even if, although. evenio : to come to pass, happen, befall. eventus : consequence, issue, result, occurrence, experience. everto : to turn out, eject, dislodge, overturn / destroy, ruin. evito : to shun, avoid; also, to kill. evoco : to draw out, draw on, produce, recall to the colors. ex : (= e ) : (prep. + abl.) out of, from within, from / on account of. exaequo exequo : to be like, equal / make level or even, relate. excedo : (trans.) to exceed, leave, pass beyond. excellentia : excellence, merit, worth. excessum : departure, death, digression. excipio : (excepi exceptum ) : to take out, except / take, capture. excito : call forth, bring about, wake, raise up. exclamo : to shout, cry aloud, exclaim, call someone by name. excludo : to shut out, exclude. excolo : to honor (a deity), polish, adorn, refine, serve. excrucio : to torment, torture, cause great pain. excusatio : excuse. excuso : to exempt from blame, excuse, make excuses, plead. exemplar : model, pattern, original, prototype, book to copy. exemplum : pattern, model, example . exerceo : to train, cultivate, keep at work, exercise, practice. exercitus : army. exertus : tested, tried, approved, experienced. exesto : extra esto. exheredo : to disinherit. exheres : disinherited. exhibeo exibeo : to produce, show, display, offer, allow, cause. exhibeo : to show, present, allow, display, present, offer. exhilaro : to make cheerful. exhorresco : to be horrified, to shake, shudder / dread, tremble at. exigo : drive out, force out, exact, demand, sell. exigo : complete, finish, determine, decide, settle. exilis : thin, slender, meager. eximietate : uncommonness, excellence. eximius : extraordinary, excellent, fine, superb. eximo : to free, release, take out, remove, waste. exinde : thence, next / thereupon, after that, then / accordingly. exitiabilis exitialis exitosus : fatal deadly, destructive, lethal. exitium : destruction, ruin. exitus : going out, going forth, exit, end, finish. exordium : the beginning (especially of a speech). exorior : to rise, spring up, issue, appear, come forward. exoro : to prevail upon a person, entreat successfully. exorsus : begun. expedio : to release, set free, clear, set straight. expedio : to free from a snare, disentangle, set free, ready. expello (expuli expulsum ) : to drive out, expel, force out, banish. experior (experiri, expertus ) : to try, test, experience, prove. expers : wanting, destitute of, not sharing in. expetens : desirous, eager. expeto : to fall upon. expeto : to demand, require / desire, strive after, make for. expilatio : plundering, taking booty. expiscor : to fish out, find out, discover. expleo : to make losses good / fulfil, discharge (duties). expleo explevi expletum : to fill, fill up, complete, finish. expletio : satisfying. expletus : (part.) perfect, complete. explicatus: explanation, exposition. explico : to unfold, unroll, disentangle / explain, expound. expono (exposui expositum ) : to set forth, explain, expose. expositus : open, accessible, exposed. expostulo : to demand earnestly / to make a claim. expugno : to capture, overcome, subdue, take by storm, gain. exquisitus : sought after, exquisite, excellent, fine, delicate. exsequor exequor : to follow to the grave, follow to the end. exsequor : to maintain, keep up, carry out, fulfill, accomplish. exsequor : to execute, avenge, punish / relate, describe, explain. exsertus exertus : project, thrust forward. exsilium : exile, banishment. exspecto : to look for, expect, await, wait for. exstinguo, exstingui, exstinctum : to extinguish, put out. exsto : to stand out, be extant, appear, project, show itself. externus : outer, foreign, outside, external. extollo : to praise exaggerate / decorate, adorn. extollo : to lift up, raise up, erect / elevate, exalt. extorqueo : to twist, wrench, dislocate / extort by force. extra : (prep. + acc.) beyond, outside. extremus : outermost, last, extreme. exturbo : to drive away, thrust out. exulto : to exult, be joyful. exuro, exussum : burn down, burn, set on fire. exustio : burning up, conflagration. F fabula : fable, story, tale, play. facile : easily. facilis : easy, agreeable, affable, pleasant. facillimus : easiest, most agreeable, pleasantest facina -oris : bad deed, crime, villainy / deed, action. facio : to sacrifice, suit, help, be of service. facio : to give permission / to experience, suffer (troubles). facio : (trans.) to make, do, act, perform, cause, bring about. factum : deed, accomplishment, work, act, achievement. facultas : power, means, opportunity, capacity, ability, stock. facundia : facultas : feasibility, opportunity, resources, abundance. facunditas : fertility, quickness or readiness of speech. faenum fenum : hay. falsus : false, deceptive. fama : talk, report, rumor, tradition. familia : family, household. familiaris : belonging to a household / friendly, intimate. famulatus : servitude, slavery, service. famulus : servant. fas est :: it is right, it is fitting, it is lawful. fas : divine law or command / fate, destiny / lawful, allowed. fateor : to confess, admit, allow, reveal, make known. fatigo : worry, fatigue, vex, harass, tease. fatum : fate, destiny, doom, lot, weird. fautor : favorer, promoter, patron, partisan, supporter. faveo : (+ inf.) To be inclined to do. faveo : (+ dat.) be favorable to, aid, support, help. fawning like that of a dog, cringing flattery. feculentia : dregs, lees, impurities, filth. fefello : to be failed by, disappointed by something. Herimann, p. 278. feliciter : happily. felix felicis : lucky, fortunate, happy. femina : woman fenestra : window. fere : almost, nearly, not quite, generally. feretrum : bier, litter. feritas : wildness, savageness. ferme, fere : almost, about. fero tuli latum : to carry, bring, tell, relate, and much else. ferrum : iron, sword. ferus : fierce, wild, savage, untamed. festinatio : speed, haste. festino : to hasten, hurry, speed. festinus : hastening, hasty. feteo : to have a bad odor, stink. ficus : fig tree. fidelis : faithful, loyal, true fidelitas : fidelity, loyalty, homage. fidens : confident, without fear, courageous. fides : trust, confidence, reliance, belief, faith. fides : promise, assurance, word of honor, engagement. fiducia : confidence, trust, assurance. filia : daughter filius : son fimus : dung, dirt, filth, manure. fines finium : boundaries, limits, / territory. finis : end, limit, boundary, purpose. finitimus finitumus : neighboring, adjacent, related to, similar. fio, fieri, factus : be made, be done, become. firmo : to assert, maintain / strengthen, make firm / encourage. firmus : firm, strong, reliable, solid. flamma : flame, fire. flatus : blowing, blast, breathing, arrogance, haughtiness. flax, falcis : sickle, bill-hook, pruning hook. fleo : to weep, cry, shed tears, sob. fluctus : billow, wave. flumen : river. fluo : to flow, pour, stream. fodio : to prick, sting, jab. fore, forem : future infinitive of sum. forensis, e : legal. forma: form, shape, beauty. formica : ant. formo : to shape, form, fashion. fors fortis : chance, luck, fortune. forsit forsan forsitan : perhaps, probably. fortasse : perhaps. forte : by chance, by luck, accidentally. fortis : strong, brave. fortiter : strongly, bravely. fortitudo : physical strength, courage, moral bravery. fortuna : fortune, luck, fate, chance. fortunate : fortunately. fortunatus : fortunate, lucky, happy. forum : market place, town square. foveo fovi fotum : to cherish. frango (fracta) : to break in pieces, shatter. frater : brother. frendo : to gnash one's teeth, bruise, crush, grind. frendo : gnash the teeth, crush, bruise, grind. frequentatio : frequency, crowding. frequentia : a large concourse, population, numerous assembly. frequento : to crowd, collect in large number, visit. frigus : cold, coolness, cold of winter / dullness, indolence. frons : forehead, brow, front. fructuarius : fruitful, fertile. fructus fructus : fruit, profit, enjoyment, produce. frugalitas : frugality, economy, pinching pennies. frumentum : grain. fruor : to have the benefit of, to enjoy. frustra esse : to be deceived, to be mistaken. frustra : in vain, mistakenly, wantonly, without reason. frux, frugi : fruits of the earth. fuga : flight, escape, fugio : to flee, escape, run away / avoid, shun. fugitivus : fugitive : deserter, runaway slave. fugo : to put to flight, chase away, drive into exile, pursue. fulcio : to support, strengthen, uphold / to besiege, oppress. fulgeo (fulsi ): to flash, shine, beam. fultus : supporter. fundo : to pour, pour out (like molten metal), melt, cast. fundo : (milit.) to rout, scatter, defeat, put to flight. fungor, fungi, functus : to occupy oneself, perform, do, execute. funis -is : rope, cord, line. furibundus : raging, furious / inspired. furor : madness, rage, frenzy. furs : thief. furtificus : thievish. furtim : by stealth, stealthily. furtum : theft, robbery / furta : stolen property / trick, deceit. fusus : (from fundo) : spread out, extended, wide, copious. G galea : helmet. Gandavum : Ghent. gaudium : joy, delight, happiness. Gemblacensis : Gembloux. gemo : to sigh, groan, wail. gens : clan, race, nation, people, tribe. genus : kind, sort, class, category. gero : to carry, bear, wear / bear, give birth to / to carry about. gesto : to carry, bear about. gestum (gero) : carrying about, conduct (oneself). gestum (gero) : carriage, bearing / having borne. gigno (genuit) : to bring forth, bear, beget, father. glacialis : icy, frozen, full of ice. gladius : sword. gloria : fame, renown, glory. glorior : to glory, boast, pride oneself. grando, onis : hailstorm. grassor : go about, go ahead, proceed, attack. gratia agere : (+ dat.) to thank. gratia : gratitude, favor. gratia : in order to, for the sake of, to. gratia : (in the abl.) on account of. gratulor : to wish a person joy, congratulate (+dat.),give thanks gratus : pleasing, agreeable / grateful. gravatus : sick, oppressed, ill. gravis : heavy, weighty, serious, important / severe, grievous. gravitas : weight, seriousness, dignity, importance. graviter : heavily, seriously. gravo : to oppress, burden, make suffer. gregatim : in troops, or crowds. gregatim : adv., In flocks, herds, troops, crowds. gusto : to taste. H habeo habui habitum : to have, hold, possess / consider, regard. habitus : disposed, in a certain condition. hac : this side, this way, here. hac : (fem. sing. abl.) He who lives BY THIS (the sword), ... hactenus : hitherto, up to this point, so far. hae he : (fem. pl. nom) THESE (speeches) were very fine. haec hec : (fem. sing. nom.) THIS (sword) is more expensive. haec hec : (neut. pl. nom.) THESE (kisses) are sweeter than wine. haec hec : (neut. pl. acc.) Deborah always won THESE (wars). hanc : (fem. sing. acc.) She wasted THIS (her youth). harum : (fem. pl. gen.) The city wall had four OF THESE (gates). has : (fem. pl. acc.) They gave THESE (their lives) for the Faith. Hasnonium : Hasnon. haud : no, not at all, by no means. Helcim : Helchin on the left bank of the Scheldt. Helnonensis : Elnon. Herimann, p. 279. Heniis Harniis : Hames. hereditas : inheritance, often simply "property." hesito (haesito) : to be unsure, uncertain, wavering. hi : (masc. pl. nom.) THESE (men) are loyal to the king. hic : (adv.) here. hic haec (hec ) hoc : this, the latter / he, she, it. hic : (masc. nom. sing.) THIS (house) is filthy. hilaris : cheerful, merry, gay. hinc : from this place, hence. his : (masc. pl. abl.) They passed BY THESE (roads). his : (masc. pl. dat.) Tell it TO THESE (policemen). his : (fem. pl. dat.) She gave her property TO THESE (churches). his : (fem. pl. abl) A life is enriched BY THESE (friendships). his : (neut. pl. dat.) Listen TO THESE (orders). his : (neut. pl. abl.) She earned it BY THESE (her deeds). hoc : (masc. sing. abl.) He gave plenty FOR THIS (field). hoc : (neut. sing. nom.) THIS (monastery) is well-built. hoc : (neut. sing. abl.) Do not hesitate BECAUSE OF THIS! (doubt) hoc : (neut. sing. acc.) Break THIS! (fetter) hodie : today. hodiernus : of today. Hoienses : Huy, Belgium, between Liege and Namur. homo hominis : human being, man. honor : honor, esteem, public office. honorabilis : respectful. hora : hour, time. hordeum, ordeum : barley. horrendus : horrible, dreadful. hortor : exhort, incite, encourage. hortus ortus : garden / pl. grounds, park. horum : (masc. pl. gen.) The horses OF THESE (soldiers) are spent. horum : (neut. pl. gen) The cattle OF THESE (monsters) were fat. hos : (masc. pl. acc.) They burned THESE (houses) to the ground. hospes : guest, host, stranger. hostes hostium : the enemy. hostis : an enemy of the state. huic : (neut sing. dat.) I'd give my right arm FOR THIS (cooky). huic : (masc. sing. dat.) He sent FOR THIS (doctor). huic : (fem sing. dat.) There is a statue IN THIS (abbey). huius : (masc. fem. neut. gen. sing.) Go ahead, eat some OF THIS. huius : (neut. sing. gen.) She paid half OF THIS (the cost). huius : (fem. sing. gen.) They are fond OF THIS (change). humanitas : kindness, culture, refinement. humanus : pertaining to man, humane, humane, cultured, refined. humilis : lowly, humble. humo : cover with earth, bury, humus : ground, earth, soil / land, country. hunc : (masc. sing. acc.) He ate THIS (fruit). Hunnam : Bunna. hypocrita : hypocrite I iaceo : to lie, lie prostrate, lie dead. iacio : to throw, cast, hurl, lay, scatter, diffuse. iaculator : : a thrower, javelin man, spear thrower. iaculum : dart, javelin, short spear. iam : now, by now, already / presently, immediately, soon. iam : moreover, henceforth, indeed, just, further. ianua : door. ibi : there ictus : blow, bite, stroke, bolt, thrust. idcirco : on that account, for that reason, for that purpose. idem eadem idem : the same. identidem : again and again, repeatedly. ideo : for that reason, on that account, therefore. idoneus : proper, worthy, fitting, deserving, capable. igitur : therefore, consequently, for this reason. ignarus : ignorant, not knowing. ignavus : lazy, listless, inert, sluggish cowardly, a coward. ignis : fire. ignoro : to be ignorant of, not know / rarely: neglect, overlook. ignosco: (+ dat.) to overlook, forgive, pardon. ignotus : unknown, obscure, ignorant, ignoble. ilico : on the spot, immediately. illa : (fem. sing. nom.) THAT (sword) is more expensive. illa : (neut. pl. acc.) Deborah always won THESE (wars). illa : (fem. sing. abl.) He who lives BY THAT (the sword), ... illa : (neut. pl. nom.) THOSE (arms) belong to the victor. illacrimo : (+ dat.) to weep over. illae ille : (fem. pl. nom.) THOSE (women) must die! illarum : (fem. pl. gen.) The city wall had four OF THOSE (gates). illas : (fem. pl. acc.) They gave THOSE (their lives) for the Faith. illata : from infero : to cause, occasion, etc. illaturos : from infero "they would cause." ille illa illud : that, the former, the famous / he, she, it. ille : (masc. nom. sing.) THAT (house) is filthy. illi : (fem sing. dat.) There is a statue IN THAT (abbey). illi : (masc. sing. dat.) He sent FOR THAT (doctor). illi : (masc. pl. nom.) THOSE (men) are loyal to the king. illi : (neut sing. dat.) i'd give my right arm FOR THOSE (cookies). illiam : (fem. sing. acc.) She wasted THAT (her youth). illic : there, at that place, therein, in that matter. illis : (masc. pl. dat.) Tell it TO THOSE (Marines). illis : (fem. pl. dat.) She gave her property TO THOSE (churches). illis : (neut. pl. abl.) She earned it BY THESE (her deeds). illis : (fem. pl. abl) A life is enriched BY THESE (friendships). illis : (masc. pl. abl.) They passed BY THOSE (roads). illis : (neut. pl. dat.) Listen TO THESE (orders). illius : (fem. sing. gen.) They are fond OF THAT (change). illius : (neut. sing. gen.) She paid half OF THAT (the cost). illius : (masc. fem. neut. gen. sing.) Go ahead, eat some OF THAT. illo : (neut. sing. abl.) Do not hesitate BECAUSE OF THAT! (doubt) illo : (masc. sing. abl.) He gave plenty FOR THAT (field). illorum : (masc. pl. gen.) The horses OF THOSE (soldiers) are spent. illorum : (neut. pl. gen) The cattle OF THESE (monsters) were fat. illos : (masc. pl. acc.) They burned THOSE (houses) to the ground. illuc : thither, to that place, to that matter, to that person. illud : (neut. sing. nom.) THAT (monastery) is well-built. illud : (neut. sing. acc.) Break THOSE (fetters)! illudo illusi illusum : to mock, make fun of, ridicule illum : (masc. sing. acc.) He ate THAT (fruit). imago : image, likeness. imber ymber : rain shower, rain storm, pelting rain. imbrium : of rain. imcomposite : adv from incompositus : incompositione in Herimann. imitabilis : that can be imitated, imitor : to imitate. immanitas : savagery, frightfulness. immerito : adv. undeservingly, without merit, unjustifiably. immineo : to hang over, be imminent, threaten. immo : by all means, by no means, on the contrary. immodicus : immoderate, excessive, beyond measure. immortalis : immortal. immotus : unmoved. immunda : unclean, impure, dirty, foul. immundus : foul, impure. impedimentum : hindrance, impediment, obstacle, difficulty. impedio : entangle, ensnare, obstruct, surround, hinder, prevent. impedito : a hinderance. impedo : to entangle, ensnare, hinder, prevent, obstruct. impello : to drive against, strike upon. impello impuli impulsum : to set in mortion, impel, urge on. impendeo : to hang over, threaten, menace, be imminent. impendium : expenditures, outlay, interest on a loan. impendo : to lay out, expand, weigh out. impenetrabiilis : impenetrable. impensa : expense, outlay. imperator : commander in chief, general, emperor. imperceptus : unperceived / unknown, imperiosus : imperious, domineering, powerful. imperium : power to command, authority, command, rule, control. impero : to give orders, command / to rule, hold sway. impetro : to get, accomplish, effect, obtain (by asking). impetus : attack, onset, rapid motion / impulse, passion, force. impleo : to fill in (or up), satisfy, content, fulfil, perform. importo : to bring in, introduce, import / bring upon, cause. importunus : unsuitable, unfavorable, troublesome / inconsiderate. impraesentiarum : for the present, in present circumstances. imprimis : especially, particularly, specifically. improbus : inferior, bad, wicked, persistent, perverse, bold. improvidus : improvident, negligent, thoughtless, feckless. improviso : unexpected ex improviso : suddenly. impudens : impudent, shameless, insolent, presumptuous. impudenter : impudently, insolently, presumptuously. impunitus : unpunished, unrestrained, safe. imputo : to lay to a charge, enter in an account, impute to. in praesentia : for the present. in : (+ acc.) into, toward, against. in : (+ abl.) in. inanis : empty, vain, inane. incassum : in vain. inceptor : beginner. inceptum : beginning, attempt, enterprise. incertus : uncertain, doubtful, unsure, hesitant. incido in mentionem : to happen to mention. incido : to fall in or on, fall in with / happen, occur. incipio : to take in hand, begin, commence. incito : to excite, spur, inspire, increase / hasten, urge on. inclino : to bend, incline, turn, change / fall back, waver. includo : to shut in, enclose, establish a siege, surround. inclutus / inclitus : celebrated, famous, renowned. incola, ae : resident, inhabitant of a place. incompositus : disorder, lack of regularity. inconsulte : indiscreetly. incontinencia : lack of restrain, incontinence. incorruptus : uncorrupted, genuine, pure. incredibilis : incredible, unbelievable. increpare : to rebuke, chide, scold. increpo : (of persons) to chide, rebuke. incubo : to hang over, dwell in, lie heavily upon. incurro : to run into, assail, attack, raid into, come upon. Inda : Cornelism / Anster. indagatio : investigation. inde : thence, from there, for that reason, thereafter, then. indebitus : not owed, not due. indico : to proclaim, make publicly known, announce, disclose. indigeo : to require, need, stand in need of. indignatio : indignation. indignus : unworthy, lacking in merit, unfit. indo (past indidi) : to establish, cause, occasion. indomitus : untamed, wild. induco : cover, put on clothing, erase writing, revoke, annul. induco : bring in, introduce, induce, persuade / decide. induco indux inductum : to lead in, introduce, induce, influence. industria : industry, diligence. industrius : industrious, diligent, assiduous, hard-working. indutiae : truce, armistice, suspension of hostilities. inedicabilis : unexplainable, inexplicable. ineptio : to play the fool, to trifle. inexpugnabilis : impregnable, unconquerable, not to be taken by force. infamo : to put to shame, disgrace. infantia : infancy, babyhood. infector : dyer. infectum reddere : to revoke, render impossible, make void, annul. infectus : unworked / not done, unfinished, incomplete. infecunditas : barrenness, sterility. infecundus : barren, sterile. infelicitas : bad luck, misfortune, infeliciter : unhappily. infelix : arbor infelix : the gallows. infelix : unfruitful, barren, unproductive, infertile. infenso : to attack, avenge. infensus : hostile, aggressive / (arms) aimed, ready / (spirit) dangerous. inferi : those down below, the dead. inferne : on the lower side, below. infero : To carry in, put or place on. infero : (in logic) to infer, conclude. infero : (abstract things) : bring on, occasion, cause. inferus : below, under, southern. infervesco : to come to a boil, become hot. infeste : in a hostile manner, belligerently. infesto : to attack, disquiet. infestus : aggressive, hostile, dangerous. inficio infeci infectum : to poison, taint, corrupt. inficio infeci infectum : to tinge, dye, stain, imbue. infidelis : unfaithful, disloyal, untrue. infidelitas : faithlessness, disloyalty. infideliter : faithlessly, disloyally. infidus : untrue, disloyal. infigo : to fix, fasten / to imprint, impress. infindo infidi infissum : to cut into. infinitas infinitio : eternity, infinity, endlessness. infinitus : unlimited, infinite, without bounds, boundless, limitless. infirmatio : weakening / refusing / invalidating. infirme : weakly, faintly. infirmitas : weakness, feebleness / instability, fickleness. infirmo : to weaken / shake / invalidate, annull infirmus : not strong, weak, feeble / (sometimes) sick, ill. infit : he, she, or it begins, begins to speak. infitialis : negative, containing a no, rejection. infitias ire : to deny. infitior : to deny / deny a debt, refuse to return something. inflammatio : setting afire / (people) inflaming / (souls) inspiring. inflammo : to set on fire, inflame, to torch, kindle. inflatio : inflation, flatulence. inflatius : too pompous / on a grander scale. inflatus : pompous, swollen, puffed up, inflated. inflatus : blowing into, blast, inspiration. inflecto : to warp / change, sway, affect. inflecto inflexi inflectum : to bend, bow, curve. infletus : unwept, unmourned, unlamented. inflexio : a bendings, swaying. inflexus : bending, curving. infligo inflixi inflictum : to strike, hit, knock / cause damage. inflo : to blow into / to inspire, puff up, elate. influo influi influxum : to flow in / to rush in, steal in. infodio infodi infossum : to dig in, bury. informatio : concept, idea. informis : formless, shapeless / deformed, hideous. infortunatus : unfortunate, unhappy, unlucky. infortunium : misfortune, bad luck / punishment. infra inferius infimus : low down. infra : (adv.) below, underneath / to the south, in the underworld. infra : (+ acc.) below, under / (time) later than infula : insignia of office. ingemuo = dat. : to groan, sigh over. ingenium : innate character, talent, nature. ingens : of immoderate size, vast, huge, monstrous, remarkable. ingero : to go off to, betake oneself to, pour forth, inflict. ingratus : ungrateful, unpleasant, disagreeable. ingravesco : to become heavy, become a burden. inicio inieci iniectum : to throw on, put on, don / inspire. inimicus : personal enemy, foe, opponent. iniquus : unequal, unjust, unfair. initium : beginning, start, commencement, origin. iniuria : injury, damage, hurt / injustice, wrong. iniustus : unjust, inequitable, unfair. innotesco, innotui : to become known. innotesco : to become know, noted. innuo : to give a nod to, give a sign to. inolesco : to grow in or on. inops : poor, helpless, in need inquam : I say. inquis : you say. inquit : he, she, it says. inrideo : to laugh at, mock, ridicule. inritus irritus : void, invalid, in vain, useless, ineffectual. inruo irruo : to rush in, fling in. insania : insanity, irrationality, madness, folly. insciens : unknowing, unaware, ignorant. inscribo : inscribe, entitle, enlist. insensatus : irrational. insequor : to follow, pursue, assail, reproach, rebuke, attack. inservio : to be a slave, serve, be devoted to. insideo : sit upon something, be firmly placed. insidiae : (pl.) treachery, ambush, plot, conspiracy. insinuo : to insinuate, work one's way in, intimate. insisto : to enter upon [a journey] tread; (with d.) follow. insolita : unaccustomed, unusual. insolitus : unaccustomed / unusual, strange, uncommon. insons insontis : guiltless, innocent. insperatus : unexpected, unlooked for, unanticipated. instanter : urgently. instar : a form, figure, after the fashion of, like. instigo : to goad, incite, stimulate, urge. instituo : to establish, found, institute. insto : to pursue eagerly, devote oneself to. instructus (from instruo) : equipped, trained, supplied. instructus : trained, taught. instruo : to built in, set up, construct, furnish / train. instruo : prepare, provide / draw up an order of battle. Insula : Lille. Insula : island. insurgo insurgi insurrectum : to rise up, rebel, revolt. integer : whole, untouched, unhurt, undamaged / complete, entire. intellego intellexi intellectum : to understand, comprehend, see. intempestivus: unseasonable, untimely, immoderate. intendo : to stretch, strain, try to prove. intendo : to extend, aim, direct, direct one's course, aim at. intentio : effort, exertion, attention, intent / attack, accusation. intentus : thorough, tense, anxious, strict. inter : (+ acc.) between, among. intercipio intercepi interceptum : to intercept interdico : to forbid, prohibit, outlaw, gain an injunction. interdico : to forbid, prohibit, interdict. interdum : sometimes, now and then, at times. intereo : to perish, die. interficio interfeci interfectum : to kill, murder, slay. interrogatio : interrogation, inquiry. intro : to walk into, enter, make one's way into. introduco : to lead in, introduce. intueor : to look at attentively, gaze at, consider. intumesco : to swell up, increase, swell with anger. intumesco : to sell, sell up, sell with anger. intus : within. inultus : unavenged, unpunished. invado : to undertake, go in, enter, get in. invado : to assail, usurp, seize, attack, fall upon. invalesco : to gather strength, become stronger. invenio : to come upon, find, discover. inventor : inventor, discoverer. investigo : to track down, investigate. inveteratus : hardened by age, of long-standing. invetero : to give duration, to render old invicem : one after the other, by turns, mutually, each other. invictus : unconquer, unconquerable, undefeated. invideo : to envy, be jealous of, look upon with envy. invidia : envy, jealousy, hatred. inviso : to go to see, visit, inspect, look at. invisus : hated, hateful. invito : to invite, summon. invitus : unwilling, against one's will. ioco iocor : to joke, jest, make merry. iocus : joke, jest, jape, gag. ipse ipsa ipsum : himself, herself, itself. ipsemet : his own very self. ira : anger, wrath. irascor iratus : to be angry, to be wrathful. iratus : angry, wrathful. irrito : to irritate, exasperate, excite. irritum : nothingness, worthlessness, vanity. irritus : vain, useless, ineffectual, of not effect. irritus : undecided, void, unfixed, of no effect. is ea id : this, that / he, she, it. iste ista istud : that / sometimes pejorative. ita ut : (with subj.) in such a way that, ita : so, thus. ita : (in narration) and so; (with adj. or adv.) so, so very. itaque : (adv.) and, so, therefore. iter itineris : road, route, journey. itero : to repeat, say again, iterate. iterum : again, a second time, once more. iubeo iussi iussum : to order, command. iucunditas : pleasure, charm. iucundus : agreeable, pleasant, gratifying. iudex : judge, juror. iudicium : judgment, decision, opinion, trial iudico : to judge, consider iugis, e : perpetual, continuous. iugis iuge : perpetual, continuous. iumentum : beast of burden. iungo iunxi iunctum : to join iuro : to swear, to make an oath. ius iurandum iuris iurandi etc. : oath. ius iuris : justice, law, right. iussu : (abl.) at the command of, by order of. iustus : just, right, equitable. iuvo : to help, aid, assist / to please. iuxta : just short of. iuxta : close by, near / in like manner, equally. iuxta : (+ acc.) close to, near to / (time) just before. J jaculum : dart, javelin. judicium : trial, legal investigation, judgement, decision. jugis : adj. continual, ceaseless, perennial, constant. jugiter : continually, perpetually, constantly / instantly. jumentum : draft animal. juvenis : young man, youth. juventus : the age of youth (20-40 years). L labefacio labefeci labefactum : to shake, loosen / impair. labefacto : to weaken, disturb / shake violently. labellum : a little lip / a small washing vessel. labes labis : stain, blemish, disgrace, infamy / misfortune. labia labium :lip (labiae : lips). labiosus : having large lips. labo : to totter, sink, begin to fall. labor : hardship, fatigue, distress. labor laboris : labor, work, toil labor lapsus : to slip, glide, slide. labores solis : eclipse of the sun. laboriose : laboriously, with great effort laboriosus : toilsome, laborious / (persons) industrious, toiling. laboro : (intrans.) to work, toil, suffer, be afflicted, be troubled. laboro : (trans.) work out, prepare, arrange, form, elaborate. labrum : lip, edge, rim / bathing tub. labrusca : wild grape vine. labruscum : the wild grape. lac lactis : milk. lacer : torn, mangled, cut to pieces. laceratio : a tearing, mangling. lacero : to tear to pieces, mangle / squander money / slander someone. lacerta : lizard. lacertosus : muscular, powerful. lacertus : the upper arm / strength. lacesso : to harass, attack. lacrima Heliandum : amber. lacrima : tears / exudations from some plants. lacrimabilis : lamentable, deplorable, woeful. lacrimo : to weep, shed tears / exude, drip. lacrimosus : tearful, mournful, shedding tears, lactans : giving milk. lactatio : enticement, come-on. lacteus : milky, of milk, milk-white. lacteus : of milk, milky, milk-white. lacto : to allure, entice, wheedle. lactuca : lettuce. lacuna : missing letters, words, or phrases in a manuscript. lacuna : a hole, empty space / pond, pool / deficiency, loss. lacunar : panelled ceiling. lacus : a hollow / lake, pool, pond, trough, tank, tub. laedo ledo : strike, hit, hurt, damage, offend, annoy, violate. laesio lesio : rhetorical attack / wounding. laetabilis letabilis : joyous, glad. laetans : rejoicing, joyous. laetatio letatio : rejoicing, joy. laetifico letifico : to fertilize / cheer, gladden, delight. laetificus letificus : gladdening, joyous, spreading happiness. laetitia letitia : fertility / richness, grace / joy, delight. laeto leto : to cheer, gladden, make joyful. laetor letor : to rejoice, be joyful. laeve leve : left-handedly, awkwardly. laevus levus : foolish, silly / unlucky, unpropitious. laevus levus : the left hand, left side, left-handed. laganum : a cake. lama : bog, slough. lambo : to lick / (of rivers) to wash. lamenta (neut. pl) : weeping, wailing. lamentabilis : lamentable, mournful. lamentatio : weeping, wailing, lamenting. lamentor : to weep, wail, lament / (trans.) to bewail. lamia : witch, vampire. lamnia lammina lamna : sheet of metal, coin, knife blade, nutshell. lapsus : fall, fault, error, sliding, graduate movement. laqueum : noose, halter, snare, trap. laqueus : snare, trap, noose. largior : lavish, bestow, grant, give abundantly. lascivio : to run riot, play, be wanton. lasesco : to become tired, grow weary. latus -eris : sides, flank / lungs / laudator : praiser. laudo : to praise, extoll, commend / name, mention, cite, quote. Laudunum : Laon. laus : praise, glory, fame. lebes : copper kettle, basin, cauldron. lectica : litter, bier. lector : reader. lectus : bed. legatarius : legatee. legatus : deputy, ambassador, envoy, legens legentis : a reader. legio : legion lego : to gather, choose, collect, pass through, read, lemiscus : a ribbon. lemma : theme, title, epigram. lemures : (pl. only) ghosts, phantoms. lenimentus : alleviation, improvement, mitigation. lenio : to mitigate, relieve, make better. lenis : smooth / gentle, kind, mild. lenitas lenitudo : smoothness, gentleness, mildness. leno : procurer, go-between. lenocinium : enticement, allurement. lenocinor : to pander, flatter, make up to / to promote, advance. lens lentis : lentil. lente : slowly, calmly, cooly, deliberately. lentesco : to become soft, flexible, sticky / to weaken, slacken. lentitudo : slowness, apathy, sluggishness. lento : to bend. lentulus : rather slow, a little slow. lentus : lethargic, inactive / slow, lingering. lentus : tough, resistant, tenacious / supple, pliant / Leo : lion. Leodie : Liege. lepide : charmingly, wittily, elegantly, pleasantly. lepidus : charming, witty, pleasant, elegant. lepor lepos : charm, wit, elegance. lepus : hare, rabbit. Lesciense, monastery of : Liessies. letalis : mortal, deadly, fatal. letaliter : mortally, fatally. letanie : litany lethargus : drowsiness, apathy, sleepiness, coma. letifer : deadly, mortal. leto : to kill, slay. letum : death, ruin, annihilation. levamen : alleviation, mitigation, solace, refreshment. levamentum : comfort, easing, alleviation, consolation. levatio : alleviation, mitigation, solace. leviculus : empty-headed, vain, silly. levidensis : thin, slight, poor. levis : rapid, swift / unimportant / fickle, inconstant / unstable. levis : light, slight, trivial / beardless, bald / light-armed. levitas : lightness, levity / fickleness, inconstancy / groundlessness. leviter : lightly, softly, slightly. levo : to smooth, polish. levo : to raise, lift up / relieve, ease / diminish, weaken, impair. lex legis : law, statute / covenant, agreement libatio : libation. libellus : little book. libenter : willingly, with pleasure. liber : child, offspring. liber libri : book. liber libera, liberum : free, independent, unrestricted. liberalis : courteous, generous, gentlemanly. liberalitas : courtesy, kindness, generousity / a grant. liberaliter : courteously, generously, honorably. liberatio : release, liberation, acquittal, setting free. libere : freely, openly, frankly. libero : to liberate, set free. libero : to lift (an obstacle), raise. libero : to set free, deliver, liberate, release / exempt libertas : freedom, liberty, independence / frankness, candor. libido : whim, caprice, violent desire, passionate longing. licet : granted that, although / it is allowed, one may or can. licet : (as conj.) granted that, although. ligo : to bind, tie. lima : file, polishing, revision. limen, limina : threshold. lingua : language, tongue, speech. lino : to smear, befoul, dirty. linteum : linen, napkin. liquidus : fluid, flowing, liquid / clear, evident, certain. litigo : to quarrel, dispute. littera : letter (of the alphabet). litterae : (pl.) letter, epistle, missive, note / literature. loci : (pl.) passages in literary works. loco : to place, put, position. locupleto : to enrich, make wealthy. locus : place, location, situation, spot. loginquitas : distance, remoteness, isolation. longe lateque : far and wide. longe : far. longus : long loquax loquacis : talkative, loquacious, garrulous. loquor locutus : to say, speak, tell. loricatus : wearing armor, armored. lubricus : oily, slippery, slick. lucerna : lamp. lucror : to gain, profit, win. lucrosus : profitable, gainful. lucrum : gain, profit. luctisonus : sad-sounding, mournful, baleful. luctus : lamentation, mourning, grief. ludio ludius : actor, player ludo lusi lusum : to play, sport / imitate, banter / delude, deceive. ludus : game, sport, school. lues : plague, pestilence, calamity. lugeo : to mourn, be in mourning, grieve / (tans,) to lament, bewail. luna : moon. lupus : wolf. Lutosensis : Leuze. lux lucis : light. luxuria : luxury, extravagance, opulence. M macellarius : butcher, slaughter-house. macer : thin, lean. macero : to soften, weaken, reduce, torment. macies : thiness, gauntness / poverty barrenness macresco : to become lean, skinny, thin. mactabilis : deadly, lethal. macto : to magnify, glorify, honor / slay, fight, punish, afflict. macula : stain, mark, spot / blemish, fault, flaw. maculo : to stain, blemish, defile, pollute. maculosus : spotted, speckled, polluted. madesco : to get wet. madide : drunkenly. madidus : wet, moist, soaked, boiled, soft, drunk, dyed, steeped. mador : wetness, moisture. maero : to grieve, sorrow. maeror meror : mourning, grief, sorrow. magis : more, to a greater extent, rather, for preference magister : master, canon / master of a school, professor. magnopere magnus opere : very, very much. magnus maior maximus : large, great, important. magus : magical. maiestas : majesty, dignity, greatness. maiores : (pl.) ancestors. Malbodiensis : Maubeuge. male peius pessime : badly, ill, wrongly. malens : preferring. Malmundarium : Malmedy. malo mallui malus : to choose, prefer. malum : evil, misfortune, misdeed, crime, injury, damage. malus peior pessimus : bad, wicked, evil. mancipo mancepo : to sell formally, turn over, give into charge. mancipo : to sell formally, give up. mandatum : order, decree, mandate, instruction. mando : to commit, entrust, order, command. mane : morning, early in the morning, early. manentia : permanency. maneo : to remain, stay, stay the night, last, endure, abide by. mansuetus : mild, soft, gentle. manus manus : hand, band, handwriting. Marceniense : Marchiennes, Marcieniensis : Marchiennes. mare maris : sea. maritus : husband. mater matris : mother. matera, mairia : ?vat, for the fermentation of beer. materia : material, substance, matter. matertera : maternal aunt. matrimonium : marriage. maxime : greatly, exceedingly, to the highest degree, very. maxime : especially, particularly, principally. me : (acc.) me / that old black magic has ME in its spell. me : (abl.) me / you'll do fine with ME, baby. medicus : doctor, physician. mediocris : ordinary, average, fair, moderate, mediocre. meditor meditatus : to reflect upon, consider, ponder / practice. medius : middle, the middle of. mei : my, mine / MY heart belongs to daddy. that old gang of MINE. mel mellis : honey. melior : better. mellitus : honeyed, sweet as honey. membrana : thin skin, film, parchment, membrane, prepared skin. memini meminisse : to remember. memor : mindful, remembering, grateful, thoughful, prudent. memoratus : mentioned. memoria : memory, remembrance, recall, recollection. Menapiorum : mendosus : faulty, full of faults. mens mentis : mind, thought, intention, intellect. mensa : table. mensis mensis : month. merces mercedis : pay, reward, recompense, compensation. mereo, mereor : deserve, earn, be entitled to, merit. mereo : deserve, gain, obtain, serve as a soldier. meretrix meretricis : prostitute, whore, harlot. meridianus : midday, afternoon, south. mestitia : misfortune? Metim : Metz. metuo : to fear, dread, be frightened. metus : fear, dread, anxiety. meus : my. mica : crumb, morsel, grain. mihi : (dat.) me / give ME land, lots of land. miles militis : soldier, warrior, knight. milia : (pl.) thousands. militaris -e : of a soldier, military, martial. mille : a thousand. millies milies : a thousand times. minime : in the least degree, very little / not at all, by no means minimus : least, smallest, slightest. ministro : to serve, wait upon, provide, supply. ministro : to attend, wait upon, assist. minor : smaller, less, slighter. minuo minui minutum : To less, diminish, decrease, grow smaller. mire : wonderfully, marvellously, uncommonly. miro : to wonder. miror : to marvel at, admire, wonder. mirus : wonderful, astonishing, extraordinary. misceo miscui mixtum : to mix, mingle, blend. miser : wretched, unfortunate, miserable. misere : wretchedly, miserably. misereo, misereor : to pity. misericordia : pity, mercy. missa : holy mass mitesco : to grow mild, ameliorate. mitigo : to make mild or ripe, make smooth, pacify, appease. mitis : mild, gentle / ripe, mature. mitto misi missum : to send, dispatch. modestus : orderly, within bounds, moderate, restrained. modica : moderate, within bounds, limited, undistinguished. modicus : ordinary, undistinguished, within bounds. modio : a grain measure, a bushel basket. modo : now, just now, only. modus : measure, bound, limit / manner, method, mode, way. Moguntienses : Mainz. moleste : take annoyance moleste fero : I take annoyance. molestia : annoyance, troublesomeness / stiffness, affectation. molestus : troublesome, disagreeable, annoying. molior : to build, erect, construct, contrive, toil, struggle. mollio : to soften, make pliant. mollis : adj. soft, pliant, flexible, easily moved, gentle. monachus : monk. Monasteriense : Munster. monasterium : monastery, abbey, convent. moneo : to warn, admonish, remind, advise, instruct. monitio : admonition, warning. mons montis : mountain, mount. monstro : to show, appoint, point out, ordain. monstrum : portent, omen, monster. Montensem : Mons. mora : delay moratlis : mortal. morbus : sickness, disease, illness. mores, morium : ways, conduct, character, morals. morior : to die, wither away, decay. mors mortis : death. morsus : a biting, bite, also, sting, pain. mortifera : deadly things mortuus : dead, deceased, passed away, gone West, departed. mos moris : will, inclination / custom, wont, usage, rule. moveo moti motum : to move, arouse, affect, influence. mox : soon, presently, then, thereupon. mucro : a sharp point, edge, dagger point. mugio : to groan, bellow, roar, low. mulier : woman. multi : many, numerous / the common herd. multo : by much, by far, by a great deal, by a lot. multum : much, greatly. multus : ne multus : briefly, in brief. multus : much, great multus plus plurimum : much, a lot. mundo : to clean. mundus : world, universe. mundus : clean, neat, elegant. munero / munerior : to give, present. munimentum : fortification, protection, defenses. munio : to fortify, defend, protect / build a road. munitio : fortifying, defense works, bridging, fortification. munus muneris : service, office, function, duty / gift. mus muris : mouse. mussito : to grumble, mutter. mutatio : change, alteration, transformation. muto : to change, alter / exchange. muto : punish, fine, mulct. mutuo : borrowed, lend, mutuus : interchanged, mutually, reciprocal / reciprocity. mutuus : a loan. dare mutuum : to make a loan. N nam : namque : (conj.) for. Namucense : Namur. narro : to make known, say, speak, narrate. nascor nasci natus : to be born, spring forth. natalis natalis : birthday. natio : nation, people. natura : nature nauta : sailor. navigatio : voyage, navigation. navigo : to sail, navigate. navis navis : ship, vessel, boat. ne ... quidem : not ... even. ne : (conj.) that ... not, in order that ... not, in order not to. necdum (neque dum) : and not yet. necessarius : necessary, needed, essential. necesse : (adj.) necessary, unavoidable, indispensable. necne : or not. neco : to kill, slay, put to death. nefas : wrong, sin. nego : to deny. negotium : employment, business, task, occupation, pains. nemo : no one, nobody. neo : to spin, interweave. (to spin thread and yarn). nepos nepotis : grandson. nequam : worthless, good for nothing, bad. nequaquam : by no means, not at all. neque ... neque : neither ... nor. neque nec : and not, nor. nequeo : not to be able, to be impossible. nequitia nequities : worthlessness, badness, wickedness. nescio : to be ignorant, be unaware, not know, be unknowing. nichilominus : nevertheless. nidor : vapor, smell, reek, odor. niger : black. nihil : (undeclinable) nothing nihilum : nothing. nimirum : of course, undoubtedly, certainly (sometimes ironical). nimis : (adv.) too much, overmuch, excessively nimium : (adv.) too much, overmuch, excessively. nisi : if not, unless, except. niteo : to shine, glitter, be bright, glow, be sleek, flourish. nitesco : to begin to shine, grow sleek. nitor : to strive, exert oneself, make an effort, persevere. nitor : to rest, lean, support oneself / trust in, depend upon. nitor : brilliance, brightness, glow, elegance, splendor. Nivellensem : Nivelles, city and monastery. niveus : white, snowy. no: (nare, navi) : to swim, float, fly, sail. nobis : (abl.) us / there'll be no one as happy as US. nobis : (dat.) us / the world belongs to US. nocens : bad, wicked, injurious, culpable, evil. noceo : (+ dat.) to do harm to, inflict injury, hurt. nolo, nolle, nolui : to be unwilling, wish not to, refuse. nomen : name / nomen Romanorum: Roman power. nominatim : by name, expressly. nomine tenus : nominally, in name. nomine tenus nominetenus : as far as the meaning of the word extends. non : not. nondum : not yet nonnisi : not? not unless? Herimann, cap. 34. nonnullus : some / pl. several. nonnumquam : sometimes. nonus : ninth. nos : we / WE live and die by that creed. nos : us / they tried to tell US we're too young. nosco : to become acquainted with, get to know. noster nostra nostrum : our, ours. noster nostri : our ours / OUR hearts beat as one. noster nostri : our ours / that old dream of OURS nota : mark, token, note, sign. notarius : stenographer (class.), notary, legal scribe. novem : nine. novitas : newness, novelty, strangeness. novo : to make anew, refresh, revive, change, alter, invent. novus : novel, unusual, extraordinary / news, novelty, a new thing novus : new, fresh, young, inexperienced, revived, refreshed. nox noctis : night. nullus : not any, no, none. numerus : total, category, class, number. numquam : adv. at no time, never. nunc quidem : at one time ... then. nunc : now, at the present time. nunquam : never. nuntio : to announce, report, relate. nuntius : messenger, message. nuper : newly, recently, not long ago. nusquam esse : not to exist. nusquam : nowhere, in no place, nothing, for nothing, never. nutrimens : food, nourishment. nutrimentus : nourishment. nutrio : to suckle, nourish, bring up, rear. nutus : a nodding, nod, command, will. nutus : a nod, command, will / gravitation, movement down. O obdormio : to fall asleep. obduro : to be hard, persist, endure, last, hold out. obicio obieci obiectum : to offer, throw in someone's teeth. obligatus : bound, under an obligation. obliquo : to turn sideways, turn aside. oblittero : to cancel, blot out. oblivio : forgetfulness, oblivion. obruo : to overwhelm, destroy. obsequium : indulgence, pliancy, submission. obstinatus : firm, resolved, staunch. obtestor : to implore, entreat, beg, call as a witness. obtineo : to hold, keep, possess, maintain / to continue. obviam ire : (+ dat.) to go to meet, oppose / help, remedy. obviam : on the way, in the way / (+ dat.) towards, against. obvius : on the way, in the way / (in dat.) open, accessible. occasio : favorable moment, opportunity. occido occidi occasum : to fall, fall down, (for the sun) to set. occulto : secretly. occupo : to take possession, grasp, seize, enjoy, get a start on. occurro : to fall upon, attack, work against, counteract. occursus : meeting, falling in, running into each other. ocius : quick. fleet, sooner, faster. oculus : eye. odio : to hate, despite, hold in contempt, dislike strongly. odium : hatred. offensio : striking, knocking, hitting against, blow. offero : to bring forward, place before, present, offer, expose. officina : workshop, factor. officium : duty, service, job. olim : at that time, formerly, once, for a long time now. omitto : to omit, leave out / let go. omnigenus : of all kinds. omnino : altogether, entirely, wholly, certainly, completely. omnipotens : all-powerful, almighty, omnipotent omnis : all, every. onero : to load, burden, oppress, fill up. onus : load, burden, weight, trouble / charge, public road tax. opera : work, pains, labor. operor : to work, labor, toil, take pains. opes : (pl.) means, wealth, abundance, riches, resources. opinio : opinion, report, rumor, conjecture, report. opisthotonos : A disease where the body is curved backward. oporotheca : place for keeping fruit. oportet : it is proper, one should, one ought. oportunitas : convenience, fitness, advantage, opportunity. oppono opposui oppositum : to set against, oppose, be opposite. opportune : (adv) opportunely, conveniently. opportunitas : fitness, suitability, convenience, advantage. opportunitatus : Herimann, cap. 42. opportunus : opportune, fit, convenient, suitable. opportunus : fit, suitable / (time) favorable / (+dat.) liable to. opprimo oppressi oppressum : to suppress, overwhelm, overpower, check. opprobrium : reproach, disgrace. oppugno : to fight against, attack, assault, assail. ops : singular: power, power to aid, power to help. optimates : the aristocratic party. optimus: one of the best, aristocrat, noble. opto : to desire, wish for, want. opus operis : work, labor, work done, completed work, building. oratio : speech, address, oration. orator : orator, speaker. orbis terrarum : the world, the Earth. orbis : circle, orb. ordinatio : rule, government, order, arrangment, regulation. ordine, ordinem : regularly, appropriately, properly. ordo : rank, class, order. orior oriri ortus : rise, become visible, appear. ornatus : dress, attire, equipment, ornament, embellishment. orno : to equip, furnish, supply / decorate, adorn. oro : to speak, argue, plead, orate, beg, entreat. os, oris : mouth, face, countenance. ostendo : show, reveal, present, make plain, declare. ostium : entrance, door. otium : free time, leisure, ease, peace, repose. otium : ease, leisure, inactivity. ovis ovis : sheep. P paciscor : to make an agreement, covenant, pact. paciscor : to make a bargain or agreement, covenant, deal. pactum : treaty, pact, contract. pactum : agreement, contract, covenant, pact. pactus : agreed-upon, stipulated, betrothed. paene, pene : nearly, almost. paganus : countryman, peasant, pagan. pala : spade, peel for putting bread in the oven. palam : openly, publicly, (+abl.) in the presence of. palea : chaff. pallium : coverlet, mantle, cloak. palma : palm. pando : to stretch out, spread out, extent. panis panis : bread. par : equal, like. paratus : prepared, ready, provided, equipped. paratus : prepared, ready, equipped; (of persons) skilled. paratus : preparation, fitting out, equipment. parco : (with dative) to spare, refrain from injuring. parco : (+inf.: to forbear to), avoid, spare, keep oneself from. parens parentis : parent. pareo : (+ dat.) to be obedient to, obey. paries parietis : wall parilis : similar, like, equal. pario : to bear, bring forth, produce / create, make, get. pariter : equally, in like manner, as well. paro : to prepare, get ready / set, put / furnish, supply / buy. pars partis : part, share / direction. partim : partly / some. parum minus minime : (adv.) little, too little, not enough. parvus minor minimus : small, little pasco : to graze, forage, browse. passer : sparrow. passim : adv. far and wide, everywhere, scattered about. patefacio : to disclose, expose, open, make open. pateo : to be revealed, to stand open, to be clear, plain. pater patris : father. paternus : of a father, paternal, native. patiens : patient / (+ gen.) capable of enduring. patientia : patience, suffering, endurance. patior : to suffer, endure, permit. patria : fatherland, one's native country, homeland. patrocinor : to protect, defend, support, patronize. patronus : patron, protector. patruus : paternal uncle. pauci : few, a few, some. paulatim : gradually, little by little. pauper : beggar, person without means. pauper : poor, with few means, poverty-stricken. paupertas : beggardry, poverty, humble circumstances. pax pacis : peace peccatus : sin. pecco : to do wrong, err, sin, go astray. pecto : to comb, card, thrash (to card wool). pectus pectoris : heart, breast. pecunia : money. pecus : a single head of cattle, especially a sheep. peior : worse (see malus). pello pepulli pulsum : to hit, beat / exile, drive away, banish. pendeo : to hang, depend, be suspended / be uncertain, undecided. pendo : to weigh, value, consider, judge, esteem. penitus : inward, inner, interior. penitus : (adv.) inside, widely, through and through, completely. penus, us : provender, supplies, victuals. pepulo : ? Herimann, cap. 3. per : (+ acc.) (cause) because of, on account of. per : (+ acc.) (means / instrument) through, with, by, by means of. per : (+ acc.) (of time) throughout, during, in the course of. per : (+ acc.) (of space) through, along, over / in the presence of. peracto : to carry through, complete, accomplish. peragro : to wander through, travel through. percipio percepi perceptum : to gain, learn, perceive, understand. percontor percunctor : inquire, interrogate, investigate. perculsus : a shock. percutio (percussum) : to strike hard, pierce, transfix / shock. perdignus : very worthy. perdo : to destroy, ruin, waste, scatter, squander. perduco : to lead through, conduct, carry through. peregrinus : wanderer, foreigner, stranger / pilgrim, crusader. pereo : to pass away, be destroyed, perish. perfectus : complete, finished, done / perfect, without flaw. perfero : to bear, suffer, endure. perficio perfeci perfectum: to do thoroughly, accomplish, bring about. perfruor : to execute completely, enjoy to the full. perfusus : steeped, soaked, drenched. pergo : to continue, proceed, go on with. periclitatus : put in peril, endangered. periclitor : to test make a trial, put in peril, endanger. periculosus : hazardous, dangerous. periculum : danger, risk. perimo peremi peremptum : to destroy peritus : skilled, expert. periurium : perjury, oath-breaking, forswearing an oath. perlustro : to pass through, survey, look, examine. permitto permissi permissum : to allow, permit, let. permoveo : to excite, agitate, stir up, move. perniciosus : pernicious, destructive. perperam : wrongly, falsely. perpetro : to complete, accomplish, perform. perpetuus : perpetual, lasting, continuous, uninterrupted. perscitus : very clever, exceedingly sharp. perscribo : to write out, write down, place on record. perseco : to cut through, dissect, cut away. persequor persequi persecutus : to follow, pursue, take revenge. perseverantia : perseverance, persistence. persevero : to persist, persevere, continue. persisto : to persist, persevere. persolvo : to unloose, explain, expound / pay off a debt, pay. personam gero : to act a part. perspicuus : transparent, bright, clear, evident. persuadeo persuasi persuasum : (+ dat.) to persuade. perterreo : to terrify. pertimesco : to become very much afraid. pertinacia : firmness, obstinacy, stubbornness. pertinaciter : stubbornly, obstinately. pertinax : persistent, firm, mean, stubborn, obstinate pertineo : to pertain to, relate to, concern. pertingo : to stretch out, extend. pertorqueo : to twist, distort. pertraho : to drag, forcibly conduct, entice, allure. perturbo : to disturb, trouble, perturb, disrupt. perturpis : very disgraceful. peruro perussi perustum : to burn up, consume / inflame, gall, chafe. pervalidus : very strong. pervenio : (+ acc.) to reach, attain, reach, be passed to. perverto perverti perversum : to turn upside down, overturn, overthrow. pervideo pervidi pervisum : to look over, survey, inspect, discern. pes pedis : foot. pessimus : worst (see malus) pessum do: to destroy, ruin, wreck pessum ire: to sink, be ruined, destroyed, be put to an end. pessum : to the ground, to the bottom, downward. pestifer : pestilential, injurious, damaging, plaguey, pestifere : destructively, injuriously. pestis pestis : plague, epidemic, pestilence / destruction, curse. petitus : inclining toward peto : to make for, go to, seek, strive after. peto : to ask for, beg, request, demand / to sue for. Pevela : Pevle, near Cisoing. pharetra : a quiver. phasma phasmatis : ghost, spirit, specter. phitonicum : Herimann p. 275. pia pium : honest, godly, holy, pious, dutiful, patriotic. pica : jay, magpie. picea : the spruce tree pictor : painter pictoratus : painted / of cloth, embroidered. piger pigra pigrum : lazy, slow, dull. pignus : pawn, pledge, token, (in pl.) persons in pledges of piper, piperis : pepper. pipio : to chirp, tweet, pipe. pirum : pear. pirus : pear tree. piscator : fisherman. piscis piscis : fish. pius: dutiful, godly, holy, upright, kind, honest, affectionate. placeo : (+ dat.) to please, be agreeable to placet : it is agreed, it is resolved, it seems good. placide : quitely, gently. placidus : quiet, still, gentle. placitum : judgment, case / plea, litigation / defense. placitum : accord, agreement, pact / assembly for judgment. placo : to placate, appease. plaga : district, zone, region. plagiarius : kid-napper, plagiarist plane : plainly, clearly. plango planxi plactum : to strike, beat / bewail, mourn. platea : street, courtyard. plaustrum : wagon, cart, charles Wain. plebs plebis : the common people, the masses, the crowd. plecto : to punish. plector : to be punished. plene : (adv.) completely, wholly, fully. plenus : full, complete, full, satisfied, rich, mature, plump. plerumque : for the most part, generally, commonly, mostly. plerusque : very many, a great number, a large part, the greater part. plico : to fold. plorabilis : deplorable. plorator : a lamenter. ploratus : weeping, lamenting. ploro : to lament, weep, weep over. pluit pluvit : it is raining, a shower is falling. pluma : feather / featherbed / pen. plumbeus : leaden, made of lead / dull, stupid, heavy, oppressive, bad. plumbum album : tin. plumbum : lead, a bullet, lead pipe. pluo : to rain, shower, sprinkle. plura : more numerous, several, many. plures : more numerous, several, many. plurimi : at the highest price, of the highest worth. plurimus : most, very many. pluris : (gen.) at a higher price, of a great value plus : more. plusculus : somewhat more, rather more. pluvia : rain, shower. pluvialis : pertaining to rain, of rain. pocius potius : rather, preferably. poema poematis : poem, verse, rhyme. poena : pain, punishment, penalty / poena dare : to pay the penalty. poeta : (masc.) poet. polenta : pearl barley, barley groats. pollen : (also pollis ): fine flour, fine meal. polleo : to be strong, powerful, able. pollex : thumb, big toe. polliceor : to promise, offer. pollicitus : promised, a promise. pomum : fruit, apple. pono posui positum : to lay, place, put, set / (milit.) post, station. pons pontis : bridge. poposco : see posco : Herimann, cap. 28, 69. populus : people, the people, nation, crowd, multitude, host. porro : forward, further, next, in turn, (of time) long ago. porta : gate, entrance. posco : to call upon, ask earnestly, request. positus : position, place, arrangment. possessio : possession, property. possum posse potum : to be able, avail, have influence. post : (+ acc.) after, behind. postea : afterwards. posteri : posterity. posterus, postremo : subsequent, following, next, future. posthabeo : [posthabito] : to put after, consider of less account. postpono : to put after, consider secondary. postquam : (conj.) after. postulo : to ask. potens : able, mighty, powerful, strong. potestas : power, ability, authority / opportunity. potior : (+ gen. or dat.) to possess, hold, get possession of. potissimum : (adv.) chiefly, most of all. potissimus : best of all, chief, principal. potius : rather, preferably prae dulcis / pre dulcis : exceedingly sweet. prae se ferre / pre se ferre : to show, exhibit, on account of. prae quam / pre quam : in comparison with. prae pre : (prep. with abl.) before, prae pre : (adv.) before, in front. praebeo prebeo : to offer, hold out, supply, provide, allow. praebeo prebeo : (+ refl.) to show oneself, present oneself. praecedo precedo : to precede, go before / surpass, excel. praecelsus precelsus : exceedingly high. praecepio precepio : precept, preconception. praeceptum preceptum : precept. praecido : to cut short, lop, mutilate. praecipio, precipio : to instruct, advise, warn, anticipate. praecipuus precipuus: excellent, distinguished, extraordinary. praeclarus preclarus : excellent, famous, beautiful, striking. praeconor preconor : to be a public crier, to herald, proclaim. praecox precox : ripe beforehand, premature. praeda preda : plunder, booty, spoils of war, loot, gain, prey. praedico predico : to warn, admonish, instruct, foretell. praeeo preeo : to go before, precede / to say in advance / to order. praefero prefero : to carry in front, display, prefer. praefero prefero : anticipate, carry by, ride by. praeficio preficio / prefeci prefectum : to put in charge of praefinio prefinio : to appoint ahead of time praefoco prefoco : to choke, suffocate. praegravo pregravo : to press heavily upon, weigh down, oppress. praemitto : to send forward, dispatch, send in advance. praemium premium : reward, prize. praemo premo : to press down, strike down. praenuntio, prenuntio : to foretell, announce before hand. praenuntius prenuncius : foretelling, harbinger, omen, token. praepono prepono : to set over, prefer. praepositus prepositus : (monastic) prior. praeproperus, preproperus: over-hasty, precipitate. praesentia presentia : presence, presence of mind, effect, power. praesentia presencia : power, effect. praesidium presidium : guard, garrison, detachment / protection. praestans prestans : excellent, distinguished, imminent. praestantia prestantia: superiority, excellence. praesto : to stand before, be outstanding, excell, surpass, show. praesto presto : to answer for, be responsible for. praesto presto : to do, perform, display, fulfill, offer, present. praesul presul : dancer / presider, protector, director. praesum presum : to be at the head of, be in charge of. praesumo presumo : to anticipate, take for granted. praeter : adj., except; prep. + acc., besides, beyond, more than. praeterea preterea : besides, further, hereafter. praetereo pretereo : to pass over, pass by, omit. praeteritus preteritus : past. praetermissio pretermissio : neglect, passing over, omission. praetorgredior pretergredior : to pass beyond, go beyond. praevenio, prevenio : to come before, anticipate. praevenio : get the start of. pravitas : crookedness, depravity, deformity, perversity. preastolatio prestolatio : the waiting for, expectation. precipio : to anticipate, instruct, advise, warn. precipue : chiefly, especially, particularly. precor : to pray, beg, entreat, invoke. prehendo : to seize, snatch, grasp, detain, arrest. premo pressi pressum : to squeeze, press down, strike down. prenda : booty, loot, stolen goods. pretereo : to go by, pass by, escape. pretium : price, value, reward. prevenire : to come to, go before hand, attend. prex precis : request, entreaty, prayer. primitus : first, for the first time. primo : first, at first, at the beginning, at the start. primoris : first, foremost / most distinguished, first. primum : quam primum : as soon as possible. primum : at first, for the first time, in the first place. princeps : chief, prince. principatus : rule, dominion, pre-eminence, first place. principium : beginning. prior prius : former, prior. priores, um : forefathers, ancestors. priscus : ancient, antique, former, old days, venerable. pristinus : former, venerable, ancient. prius : before, formerly. priusquam : (conj.) before. privatus : private, unofficial, a private person. privigna : step-daughter. privo : to deprive privus : (with gen.) deprived of. pro eo : because of the fact, because, for this reason.. pro : (+ abl.) in return for, instead of / for, as. pro : (+ abl.) in front of, before / on behalf of, for. probitas : probity, uprightness, honesty. probo : to show, prove, demonstrate, approve, find good, judge. procedo : to go out, come out / result, prosper / turn out well. procedo : to go ahead, proceed, advance, continue. procella : storm, tempest, gale; (milit) charge, onset, wave. procella : storm, tempest, gale. procer : chief noble, prince. procinctu : prepared or ready for battle. procul : far, at, to, from a distance. procurator : manager, bailiff, agent. prodigiosus : unnatural, wonderful, miraculous, amazing. proditor : traitor, betrayer. proelium : battle. profecto : truly, really, indeed. profero : to carry out, bring forth. proficio : to make progress, advance. proficio : advance, assist, help, aid, be of use. proficiscor : to depart, set out, to start forward, to arise. proficuus : proficiscor : to start forward, set out, depart, arise. profiteor: to make a public statement / to declare oneself. profiteor: to acknowledge, confess / offer, promise. profor profari profatus : to speak out. profugus : fleeing, fugitive, banished, migratory. profundo frofui profusum : to pour forth, gush, stream. profundum : a depth, abyss, chasm / the sea. profundus : deep, profound, high, thick, dense, boundless. progener : husband of a grand-daughter. progenero : to produce, engender. progenies : descent, lineage, progeny, offspring, descendants. progenitor : founder of a family, ancestor. progigno progenui progenitum : to engender, bring forth. prognatus : born, sprung from / son. progredior : to go forth, advance, proceed, go out. progressio : advance, progress, increase. progressus : advance, going forward, increase, a royal circuit. prohibeo : to prevent, hinder, restrain, prohibit, forbid. prohibitio : prohibition, restrain, forbidding. proicio : to throw forth, fling, abandon. proinde ut: proinde quam: just as. proinde quasi proinde ac si : just as if. proinde : consequently, therefore, as a result. prolabor : to slide forward, slip forward, fall forward, fall down. prolapsio : a slipping or sliding. prolatio : a bringing forward, mentioning / extension / deferring. prolato : to enlarge, lengthen, extend / put off, defer. prolecto : to entice, allure. proles : offspring, descendants, posterity, (plants : fruit). proletarius : a citizen of the lowest rank. prolicio prolixi : to lure forth, entice. prolix : long, stretching. prolixus : wide, broad, long / willing, obliging, favorable. proloquor : to speak out, declare openly. proluo prolu prolutum : to wash away, wash clean. prolusio : preliminary exercise, prelude. proluvier : inundation / scouring / discharge. promereo promereor : to deserve, merit promeritum : desserts, merit, credit.promissio : a promise. prominens : jutting out, standing out / a projection. promineo : to stand out, jut, extend. promisce promiscue : indiscriminately. promiscus promiscuus : mixed, indiscriminate / commonplace, usual. promissio : a promise promissor : a promiser, suretor, guarantor. promitto : to let go, send forth, undertake, promise. promitto : to let go forward, send forth, promise, undertake. promo prompsi promptum : to produce, disclose, bring forth. promontorium : peak, mountain crest, ridge, promontory. promoveo promovi promotum : push forward, move ahead, advance. prompte : promptly, resolutely, readily. promptu : in promptu habere : to have read, display, have on show. promptu : in promptu ponere : to make clear, reveal, disclose. promptu : in promptu esse : to be ready, to be easy, to be clear. promptus : (persons) prepared, resolute, prompt. promptus : ready at hand, visible, apparent. promulgatio : publication, promulgation (of a law). promus : steward, butler. promutuus : (cash) advanced, prepaid, arraigned beforehand. pronepos proneptos : great-grandson pronuntio : to proclaim, announce, declaim. prope : near, nearly, not far from, just now, closely. prope : near, near to, not far, not long from now. propello : to drive before one, drive away. propero : to hasten, speed, move rapidly, come quickly. propero : to hasten / accelerate, speed up. propinquo : (intrans) to come near, draw near, approach. propinquus : near, close, similar, nearly related. propono : display, publish, relate, tell, propose, promise. propositum : a design, purpose, scheme, theme of discourse. proprie : exclusively, particularly, peculiarly. properly. proprius : one's own, special, characteristic, particular. proprius : one's own, permanent, special, peculiar. propter : (+ acc.) near, close, on account of, because of. propugnaculum : fortification, rampart, defense. prorsus : forward, straight ahead, to sum up, utterly, wholly. prosequor (prosecutus) : to attack, go with, pursue, attend. prosper : favorable, fortunate, lucky, prosperous. prosperitas : prosperity, good fortune. prosum (profuturus) : to be useful, of benefit, do good. prosum : to be useful, do good, benefit (+ dative). prosum : (with dat.) to be useful, do good, benefit. protestor, protesto : to declare in public, affirm, bear witness. protinus : forward, further on, continuously, immediately. protraho (protractus): to draw out, protract, defer, make known. prout : just as, according to. provectus : advanced, advanced in age. proveho : to carry on, carry forward, advance, promote, proventus : a growing up, increase, crop, yield, or issue. provideo : to foresee, provide, make provision for. provisor : one who provides for, or against. provolvere se : to throw oneself down, abase oneself. proximus : nearest, closest, next. prudens : prudent, wise. prudenter : wisely, discreetly. prudentia : foresight, wisdom, discretion. Pruma : Prums. publicus : of the people, public, open to all. puchre : beautifully, finely, handsomely. pudendus : shameful, disgraceful. pudeo : to be ashamed, pudicus : modest. chaste. pudor : modesty, bashfulness. puella : girl. puer : boy. puerilis : childish, boyish, foolish. pueriliter : boyishly, childishly, foolishly. puga pyga : buttocks. pugna : fight, battle, conflict, set-to. pugnacitas : the desire to fight, pugnacity. pugnaculum : fortress. pugnax : fond of fighting, combative, stubborn, contentious. pugno : to fight. pugnus : the fist. pulchellus : pretty. pulcher pulchra pulchrum : beautiful, handsome, fine. pulchritudo pulchritudinis : beauty, fineness. pulex : the flea. pullulo : shoot up, sprout, burgeon. pullus : dark-colored, blackish / sad, gloomy / a dark garment. pullus : young animal / chicken, chick. pulmentum : anything eaten with bread, sauce or relish. pulmo : the lung. pulpa : flesh. pulpitum : platform, stage. pulso : to strike (the hours) pulsus : beating, blow, push, influence. pulsus : beating, blow, push, impulse, influence. pulvis : dust, powder / arena, scene of action. pumilius pumilio : a dwarf. punctum : a prick, little hole, puncture / a point, spot, place. pungo pupugi punctum : to penetrate / sting, annoy, harass. pungo pupugi punctum : to prick, puncture, stab / touch, move. puniceus : purple, red. punio : to punish, avenge, gave vengeance. punitor : punisher, avenger. pupa : doll / little girl. pupillus pupilla : orphan, ward. puppis : stern of a ship, the poop. pupula : pupil of the eye. purgamentum : rubbish, trash, filth, sweepings. purgatio: cleaning out, cleansing / excsuing, justification. purgo : to clean, cleanse, purify / clear away, wash off / justify. purpura : purple dye, purple cloth / high rank, emperorship. purus : pure, free from. pusillus : tiny, puny / petty, mean. putator : pruner. puteo : to stink, be redolent, smell bad. puter : rotten, decayed, putrid / loose, crumbling / flabby. putesco : to putrefy, day, rot. puteus : well, pit. puto : to clear, settle up, consider, think, believe, suppose, judge. putus : pure, unmixed, unadulterated. pyropus : bronze. pyus pyxidis : a little box, casket. Q qua : (adv.) by which route, where. qua : (fem. sing. abl.) (the abbess) BY WHOM she was advised. quadraginta : forty (indecl.) quadratus : square, a square. quadrigae : four-horse team. quadrivium : second stage of the medieval curriculum quadrivium : crossroads, place where four roads meet. quadrum : a square quadruplator : an exaggerator, informer quadruplor : to be an informant. quae : (neut. pl. nom.) WHAT cannot be avoided must be endured. quae que : (fem. sing. nom.) (the milkmaid), WHO loved a prince. quae : (neut. pl. acc.) those things WHICH we must have quae : (fem. pl. nom.) Let THOSE (women) WHO have ears to hear .. quaero quero : to seek, search for / ask, enquire, search for quaero quero : to miss, want / seek to know / obtain, get. quaesitio quesitio : investigation, interrogation. quaeso queso : to seek for, ask for. quaestio questio : seeking, searching / inquiry, investigation. quaestuosus questuosus : profitable, fond of gain, rich. quaestus questus : profit, a source of profit, gaining, getting. qualis : of what kind? of the kind that. qualiscumque : of any kind whatever, any whatever. qualislibet : of what sort you will. qualitas : quality, property. qualiter : as, just as. quam plures : as many as possible. quam : (adv. and conj.) how, than, as ... as possible. quam : (fem. sing. acc.) (the church), WHICH the Lord loved. quamdiu : such a long time. quamobrem, quam ob rem : wherefore? why? for which reason. quamquam : nevertheless, and yet (beginning a sentence) / though. quamtotius : ? completely. quamvis : (conj) however much, although / as much as you like. quando : (interr.) when si quando : if ever. quandoquidem : since, because. quanti : for how much, at what price. quanto : by how much (+ comp. adj. or adv.) quantocius quantotius : the soon the better. quantocius quantotius : as quickly as possible. quantum in me est : as much as in me lies. quantum : (+ gen.) as much of ... as. quantum : how much?, how much!, as much as. quantus ... quantus : as great as, as much as. quantus : how great?, how great!, how much, as great as. quantuscumque quantacumque quantumcumque : however great quantuslibet : as much as you will, as great as you will. quantuvis : as great as you please, however great. quapropter : wherefore. quare : wherefore, why, because of which thing. quartus : fourth. quarum : (fem. pl. gen.) their envy and jealousy, OF WHICH we know. quas : (fem. pl. acc.) the fates, against whom he struggled quasi : as if, just as, just as if, as it were / a sort of quassatio : a shaking. quasso : to shake violently, shake to pieces, break, shatter.. quatenus / quatinus : since, as, in order that, that. quatenus / quatinus : how far, to what extent, where, seeing that. quater : four times / again and again. quattuor : four (indecl.) quem : (masc. sing. acc.) (the man), WHOM the king struck. quemadmodum : how, in what manner. queo : to be able. quercetum : an oak grove, and oak forest. quercus : oak tree. quereia querella : complaint, complaining. queribundus : complaining, plaintive, whining. querimonia : complaint, a charge in court. queritor : to complain excessively, whine, gripe. quernus : oaken. queror : to complain, lament, bewail (dogs) whine, whimper. querulus : complaining, whining, lamenting. qui quae que quod : which, what, that. qui : (masc. pl. nom.) Let THOSE (men) WHO have eyes to see ... qui : (masc. neut. nom.) (the prince) WHO loved a milkmaid quia : because. quibus : (neut. pl. abl.) the arms WITH WHICH he won Rome. quibus : (fem. pl. dat.) the good fortune, TO WHICH he owed his crown. quibus : (neut. pl. dat.) the crimes FOR WHICH he was executed. quibus : (masc. pl. dat.) the monastery IN WHICH he was interred. quibus : (masc. pl. abl.) his sons, BY WHOM he was attacked when old quibus : (fem. pl. abl.) the beards, BY WHICH the pirates were known. quicquid : whoever, whatever, whatsoever, anything at all. quid : (neut. of quis ) : what quidam quaedam quedam quidam : a certain person or thing, / kind of. quidem : indeed, certainly, at least / ne ... quidem : not ... even. quies quietis : quiet, rest, peace. quilibet : anyone, anything. quin etiam : why even, in fact, moreover. quin : but come now, rather, indeed, quinam quaenam quenam quodnam : which? what? quingenti : five hundred. quinquennis : five years old. quippe : certainly, to be sure, indeed, of course. quisnam, quidnam : who, what. quisquam : anyone, anything. quisque : each one, each person. quisquis : whoever, whatever, whatsoever, anything at all. quo : to which place, to what place, whither, where. quo : (masc. sing. abl.) (the money) BY means of WHICH he lived. quo : (neut. sing. abl.) (the eagerness) THROUGH WHICH he died. quod : because, whereas, the point that, the fact that. quod : (with time) since, as far as, to the extent that. quod : (beginning sentence) and, but, now. quod : (neut. sing. acc.) (the sea), WHICH you cannot drink dry. quod : (neut. sing. nom.) (the war), WHICH killed so many. quodammodo : in a certain way, in a certain measure. quomodo : in what manner, how / in whatever way, somehow. quondam : formerly, once, at one time, erstwhile. quoniam : since, whereas, because. quoque : also, too. quorum : (neut. pl. gen.) dangers, OF WHICH there were not a few. quorum : (masc. pl. gen.) the army, half OF WHICH was ill. quos : (masc. pl. acc.) those WHOM he accused of treachery. quot : how many, as many (indecl.). quotiens : often. quotienscumque : however often. quovis : to whatever place you will. R radicitus : by the roots, utterly. rapio rapui ratum : to seize, snatch, carry away. rarus : rare, uncommon. ratio : system, manner, method, procedure, manner. ratio : reckoning, account / reason, judgment, consideration. re vera : in truth. recedo : to go back, retreat, retire, disappear. recipio recepi receptum : to go back, retire, recede, retreat. recito : to read aloud, recite. recognosco : to recognize, recollect, recall. recolo : to recall, reflect upon, rework, resume, rehabilitate. recolo : to cultivate, work again, resume, rehabilitate recolo : reflect upon, consider, recall. reconcilio : to restore, repair / (of persons) unite, reconcile. recondo : lay up, store, hoard. recordatio : recollection, memory, recall. recordor : to remember, think of, recollect, ponder over. recro : to recreate, restore, revive. rectum : virtue, right rectus : right, correct, proper, upright, natural, plain. recuperatio : recovery, recuperation. recupero : to regain, recoup, recover. recuso : to refuse. redarguo : refute, disprove, contradict. redarguo : disprove, refute. With gen. prove guilty, convict. reddo : to repeat, recite, represent, imitate, pay up, deliver. reddo : to give back, restore, return, answer, translate, render. redemptio : ransoming, redemption, buying back, farming taxes. redemptor : redeemer (Christ). redeo : to go back, come back, return / (revenue) to come in. redeo : to fall back upon, be reduced to, be brought to. redigo (redactum) : to bring or reduce to a condition, lessen. redono : to give back, give up. reduco : to lead back, bring back, return. redundantia : overflowing, redundancy. redundo : to overflow, stream over, overflow, excess, flood. refectorium : refectory, monastic mess hall. refero : to bring back a message, refer. reformo : to form again, mould anew. regina : queen. regius : royal, regal. regnum : rule, authority, kingdom, realm. rego rexi rectum : to guide, direct, to rule. regula : rule / monastic rule. relaxo : to loosen, enlarge, relax, ease, lighten. relego relegi relectum : to read again, re-read. relevo : to lift again, lighten, alleviate, relieve. relictus : (fr. relinquo) having inherited, been bequeathed. relinquo : to leave behind, bequeath / abandon, forsake. reliquum : remainder, what is left, leavings. relucesco : to become bright again. reluctor : to struggle against, resist. remando : to send back word. remaneo : to stay behind, remain, continue. remaneo : to remain behind, stay, continue. rememdium : cure, remedy, nostrum, medicine. removeo : to draw back, set aside, take away. remuneror : to repay, reward. renuntio : to declare, announce, report, give notice. renuo : to deny, refuse, reject. rependo : to ransom, pay back, requite. repens : sudden, unexpected, fresh, recent. repente : suddenly, unexpectedly. repere : to crawl. reperio : to get again, find, ascertain, discover, invent. repetitio : repetition. repeto : to seek again, ask back. repeto : to return to, begin again, deduce, recall, recollect. repleo : to replenish, fill up, fill up again, fill, satisfy. repletus : filled, full. repo repsi reptum : to creep, crawl. repono : to deposit, lay up, store / requite. reprehendo : to blame, reprove, refute, hold back, check, catch. repugno : to fight against, oppose, resist / be incompatible with. requiesco requievi requietum : to rest. requiro : to ask for, look for, demand, desire, miss. res rei : thing, matter, business, affair. res publica : commonwealth, state, republic, public business. resisto : to resist, make a stand, oppose. respicio : to look back, provide for, respect, have regard for. respondeo respondi responsum : to answer, reply, respond. restituo : restore, put back, replace, reinstate, repair. resumo (resumpsi, resumptum) : to renew, repeat, resume. retineo : to hold back, restrain, detain, keep, maintain. retraho retraxi retractum : to draw back, pull back. retribuo : to give again, give as due. reus : defendant, accused, answerable, bound. revenio : to come back, return. reverto : to go back, return, revert. revertor reverti reversus : to return, come back. revoco : to call back, recover, refer, revoke. revolvo : to unroll a book, go over again, repeat. rex rgis : king. rhetor : rhetorician, teacher of rhetoric. rhetoricus : rhetorical. rideo risi risum : to laugh at, laugh. rigor : stiffness, hardness, sternness. ritus : usage, ceremony, rite. rogo eum ut +subjunctive : to ask someone to do something. rogo : to ask, ask for. rostrum : bill of a bird, beak. rota : wheel. Rotomagense : Rouen. rotundus : wheel-shaped, round. rubor : redness, blush, modesty, shame, disgrace. rudimentum : trial, attempt, essay. rumor : rumor, gossip. ruo rui rutum : to rush, fall, be ruined. rursus : on the other hand, in return, back, again. rus ruris : the country, countryside, rural area. rusticus : rustic, rural / peasant. S sabbatum : sabbath. sacculus : purse, little bag, little sack. sacrificum : sacrifice. sacrilegus : sacrilegious, impious. saepe sepe : hedge, fence, enclosure, haye. saepe sepe : often, frequently, repeatedly. saepenumero : repeated, again and again. saepius sepius : often, frequently, repeatedly. saeta : hair. saeta equina : horse-hair. saevio : to rage, be furious, take violent action. sal salis : salt, wit. salsus : salty, witty. saltem : at least, at all events. salus : health, safety, well-being, salvation / salutation. saluto : to wish well, greet, visit, reverence, pay respect to. salutor : visitor, caller. salveo : to be well, be in good health. salvus : safe, sound. sanctifico : to sanctify, make holy. sanctimonia : purity, charity, virtue, sanctity, sacredness. sanctimonialis : nun. Sanctus Eleutherius : St. Eligius. Sanctus Egidius : St. Gilles. sanctus : holy, sacred, / saint. Sanctus Rodoenus : St. Ouen. sane : rationally, sensibly, really, indeed, to be sure. sanitas : health, soundness of mend, sanity. sano : to heal. Santiago : St. James. sanus : sound, healthy, sane. sapiens : (subs.) a wise man, philosopher. sapiens : wise, judicious. sapienter : wisely, judiciously. sapientia : wisdom. sarcina : bundle, pack, burden, load. satago : to pay a creditor, satisfy a creditor. satago : have one's hands full, have enough to do. satio : to satisfy, sate. satis : enough, sufficient / sufficiently. sato : to sow, plant. satura : satire. saturo : to fill, satisfy. scaber : scabby, rough. scabies : the itch, mange, a rash. Scaldus : Scheldt. scamnum : bench, stool. scaphium (sciphus : Herimann, cap. 24) pot, bowl, drinking vessel sceleratus : wicked, accursed, infamous, criminal. scelero : to pollute with guilt, with blood, etc. scelestus : wicked, accursed, infamous, criminal. scelus sceleris : crime, sin, evil deed, wickedness. schola : school / elite troop of soldiers. scientia : knowledge, science, skill. scilicet : evidently, certainly, of course, no doubt, assuredly. scindo : to cut, rend, split, divide, separate. scio scivi scitum : to know. scio : to know, understand. scio : to know, understand. scisco : investigate, ask, inquire / vote, ordain, resolve. scribo, scripsi scriptum : to write, compose. scrinium : bookcase, case for papers. scriptor : writer, author, scribe. se habere : to keep oneself. se gero : to conduct oneself, conduct, carry on. se astringo : to commit oneself to. secedo : to go apart, withdraw. secerno secrevi secretum : to separate. secundum : (adv.) after, behind. secundum : (+ inf.), following, after, during, according to. secundus : second. securus : safe, secure, free from care, unworried, unconcerned. secus : non secus, haud secus: just so. secus : otherwise, not so. secus + atque or quam : differently from, otherwise than. secus : wrongly, badly, not as one would wish. secuutus : follower, pursuer. sed : but / and indeed, what is more. sedeo sedi sessum : to sit. seditio : dissension, quarrel, insurrection, mutiny, rising. sedo : to settle, smooth, calm, allay. seductor : seducer. semel : a single time, for the first time, even once, once, ever. semper : always, ever. senectus : old age, dotage. senex senis : old, aged, old man. sensus : feeling, sense. sententia : opinion, thought, way of thinking, meaning, purpose. sentio : to judge, suppose, vote. sentio : feel, perceive, experience, hold an opinion, seorsum : apart, separately. sepelio : to ruin, destroy, bury. septem : seven. sepulchrum : grave, tomb, sepulcher. seputus : buried, sunk, immersed. sequax : following, attending, pursuing. sequor sequi secutus : to follow, trail. serio : seriously. serius : serious, grave, solemn. sermo : talk, common talk, rumor, report, discussion. sermo : discussion, talk, common talk, conversation, rumor. sero : to sow, plant. also, late, at a late hour. servio : (+ dat.) to be a slave to, serve. servitus : servitude, slavery. servo : to watch over, keep, protect, observe, save, reserve. servus : slave, serf. sese : =se : himself, herself, itself. severitas : severity, rigor, sternness, strictness. si : if. sibimet : to them themselves. sic : so, thus / yes, that is so, that is right. siccus : dry, thirsty / sober, temperate. Siclinium : Seclin. Siclinium : Seclin in Melanchois. sicut : as, just as, as it were, (+verb in subj.) just as if. sidus : constellation, star. signum : sign, seal, indication, sign. silens : silent, still silenti etc : the dead. silentium : silence, stillness, quiet, repose, obscurity. silentium : (religion) faultlessness, perfection. sileo : to be still, silent / (+ acc.) be silent about / rest. siligo -inis : wheat, wheat flour. silva : woods, forest. similis : similar, like, resembling. similitudo : likeness, resemblance / uniformity. simplex : simple, unaffected. simul atque : as soon as. simul : at once, at the same time, together. simulatio : pretense, sine : (+ abl.) without. singularis : alone, unique, extraordinary, individual, singular. singuli : one each, one apiece, single, separate. singultim : stammeringly. singultus : sobbing, gasping. singultus : sobbing, death rattle. singulus : single, separate, one at a time, one each. sino : allow, suffer, permit, let. siquidem : since, indeed sitio : to be thirsty. sitis : thirst, dryness, drought, eager desire. sive seu : or if. socer : father in law. socius : sharing, associated, allied. socius : partner, comrade, associate, ally, fellow. sodalitas : fellowship, companionship, secret society. sol solis : sun. soleo : to be accustomed, be used to. solio : ? Herimann, cap. 28. solitudo solitudinis : loneliness, solitude. solium : chair of state, throne / bath-tub. sollers : clever, skillful. sollicito : to stir up, incite, arouse. sollicitudo : uneasiness, anxiety, disquiet, apprehension. sollicitudo : concern, anxiety, solicitude, worry. sollicitus : uneasy, worried, anxious, restless, agitated. sollicitus : troubled, anxious, concerned, worried. solum : land, country, soil, ground / bottom, floor, foundation. solum : non solum ... sed etiam : not only ... but also. solum : (adv) alone, only. solus : alone, only, the only. solutio : loosening / payment / solution / explanation. solvo : to loosen, untie, release, free, dissolve, break up. somniculosus : sleepy, drowsy somniculouse : sleepily, drowsily. somnio : to dream / (+ acc.) to dream of, imagine foolishly. somnium : dream, fancy, day-dream / foolishness, nonsense. somnus : sleep. sonitus : noise, sound. sono : to make a noise / sing / celebrate / (of words) to mean. sophismata : false conclusions, logical fallacies. sopor : deep sleep. sordeo : to be dirty, appear vile. sordes : filth, meanness, stinginess. sordesco : to become dirty. sortitus : casting lots, deciding by lot. spargo sparsi sparsum : scatter, strew, spread. speciosus : beautiful, handsome, imposing / specious plausible. spectaculum : spectacle, show. specto : to look at, watch, see. speculum : mirror. specus : cave, cavern, grotto, den. sperno sprevi spretum : to scorn, despise, spurn. spero : to hope for, hope. spes : hope. spiculum : sharp point, sting, spear, dart. spiritus : breath, breathing / life / spirit. spoliatio : plundering, looting, stripping, robbing. spolio : to strip, plunder, despoil, rob, loot spolium : spoils, plunder, booty. sponte : willingly, of one's own accord, unaided. St. Richarius : St. Riquier. stabilis : firm, stable, steadfast. stabilitas : firmness, stability, durability. Stabulaus : Stavelot. statim : firmly, steadfastly, on the spot, at once, immediately. statua : statue. statuo : to give a ruling, make an arrangement, decide. statuo : to cause to stand, establish, place, set up. stella : star. stillicidium : dripping moisture, rainwater from the eaves. stipes, itis : log, tree-trunk, branch, post, club, blockhead. stipes : log, stump, tree trunk, branch, post, club. stips, stipis : small coin, gift. sto, steti, statum : to stand, stand still, stand firm. strenuus : brisk, active, vigorous / turbulent, restive. strues : piles, heaps, masses. studio : (+ dat.) to study, pursue eagerly, be eager for. studiose : eagerly. studium : eagerness, zeal. stultus : foolish / a fool. suadeo : to recommend, advise (a person) suasoria : persuasive discourse. sub : (+ acc. or dat.) under, up under, close to, beneath, below. subito : adv. suddenly, unexpectedly. subitus : sudden, unexpected. subiungo : to yoke beneath, join, attach, subdue, subjugate. sublime : on high, aloft. subnecto : to bind on beneath, to tie. subseco : to cut away, pare subsequor : to follow after substantia : substance, essence, means of subsistence, property. subvenio : to come up to aid, relieve. subvenio : to come to the aid, succor, relieve, help, assist. succedo : to approach, submit, etc. etc. succendo : to kindle, set afire from below. successio : succeeding, succession, descent, descendant. succurro : to run up under / aid, assist, help. sufficio : to be sufficient, suffice, be enough. suffoco : to strangle, choke, suffocate. suffragium : vote, franchise / approval support, aid, assistance. suggero : to bring up, supply, provide, add, attach. place next. sui : himself, herself, itself. sulum : each, every. sum fui futurus : to be, exist. summa : the highest part / whole, sum. summisse : humbly, softly, calmly, modestly. summissus (from summitto) : let down, lowered, gentle, mild. summopere : very much, exceedingly. sumo : to take, choose, obtain, buy. / take for granted, assume. sumptus : expense, cost. supellex supellectilis : furniture, apparatus, gear. super : (prep.) (+ abl.) over, above / concerning, about, besides. super : (adv.) over, above, besides, beyond, moreover, remaining. superbia : pride, arrogance. superbus : overbearing, arrogant, haughty, proud. superficies : surface, top. superfluo : flow over, overflow, be superfluous. superna : northeast by north wind. superne : from above, above. supernus : above, superior. supero : to be above, have the upper hand, surpass, conquer, overcome. supersum : to be superfluous, to remain. superus superior supremus or summus : above, upper, high. supervacuus : superfluous, unnecessary, extra : supervenio : to arrive, come up, arrive unexpectedly. suppellex suppellectilus : ornaments. suppellex suppellectilus : household articles, furniture, goods. supplanto : to trip up. supplex : kneeling, entreating, suppliant. supplicium : punishment. suppono subpono : to put under, subject / put next to, add. suppono subpono : to put in place of, substitute, forge. supra : (+ acc.) above. surculus : shoot, sprout. surgo surrexi surrectum : to get up arise. sursum : upwards, sursum deorsum : up and down. suscipio : to raise up, maintain, support, accept, receive, undertake. suscito : to stir up, arouse, excite. suspendo suspendi suspensum : to suspend, hang. sustineo : to hold up, sustain, endure. suus sua suum : (refl. poss. adj.) his, her, its, their own. synagoga : synagogue. T tabella : writing tablet. tabellae : letter, document. tabernus : booth, hut, cottage, hove, small shop, inn, tavern. tabesco : to melt, waste away, pine, be spoiled. tabgo tetigi tactum : to touch. tabula : board, plank, gaming board, painted panel. taceo tacuitacitum : to be silent, leave unmentioned. tactus : sense of feeling, touch. taedium, tedium : disgust, weariness, boredom. talio, -onis : retribution. talis : of such a kind, such. talus : the ankle, ankle bone,. tam ... quam : as ... as possible. tam : to such a degree, so, so far. tamdiu : for such a long time. tamen : notwithstanding, nevertheless, yet, still, for all that. tametsi : even if, although. tamisium : sieve, sifter (Herimann, p. 308). tamquam tanquam : as, just as, like as, just as if. tandem : adv. at last, finally. tantillus : so little, so small. tantum : only. tantummodo : only just, just so long as. tantus : so large, so great, of such a size. tardus : slow, late, tardy. Taruennam : The Rouanne. te : (abl.) you / no one's sweeter than YOU. te : (acc.) you / I got YOU, babe. tego texi tectum : to cover, bury, conceal, hide, protect, shield. temeritas : rashness, temerity. temperantia : moderation, self-control, temperance. tempero : to mix properly, temper, regulate, mitigate. tempero : be moderate, control oneself. tempero : (+abl. or with ab) to keep from, refrain from. tempero : (+ dat.) to control, use with moderation, spare, tempestas : storm, weather. Templovium : Templeuve, villa near Cisoing. templum : sacred precinct, temple, sometimes church. temptatio : trial, temptation. tempus temporis : time. tenax : grasping, stingy, clinging, frugal, obstinate. tendo : to direct, try, attempt, stretch, extend, present, give. tendo : to direct one's course, tend, make or head for. teneo : to keep on, persist, persevere, endure. teneo : to hold, keep, possess, maintain. teneo : to grasp, know, understand. tener tenera tenerum : tender, delicate, soft, young. tenuis : thin, slight, feeble, slim, slender. tenus : prep. With abl. as far as, up to, to, down to. tenus : (after a name in abl. or gen.) up to, down to as far as. tepesco : to cool, grow lukewarm, decrease. tepidus : warm, luke-warm, tepid ter : three times, thrice. terebro : to bore through, perforate. teres : rounded, polished, smooth, fine, elegant. terga dare : to flee, retreat, run away. tergeo tergo tersi tersum : to wipe, scour, clean tergiversatio : backwardness, reluctance, evasion. tergo (a tergo ) : in the rear, from behind tergum : skin, hide tergum : back, rear. tergus : the back / skin, hide, leather. termes : a tree branch (especially olive). terminatio : termination, determination, setting of boundaries. termino : restrict, define, close, set a limit to. terminus : a boundary mark, limit, end, border. tero trivi tritum : to rub, wear out. terra : earth, ground, land, country, soil. terreo : to frighten, terrify, scare away, deter. territo : to scare, frighten, intimidate. terror : fright, fear, terror. tersus : clean, neat, correct. tertius : third. testimonium : proof, evidence, witness, indication. testis : one who gives evidence, witness, spectator / testicle. texo : to weave, twine together, plait, construct, build. texo : the main verb for weaving of cloth. textilis : woven fabric, piece of cloth. textor textrix : weaver. textus : woven cloth, web. thalassinus : sea-green. theatrum : theater. theca : case, envelope, covering. thema thematis : theme. thema : subject, topic, theme. theologus : theologian. thermae : warm springs, warm baths. thesaurus : treasure, horde / store-room, treasury. thesis : proposition, thesis. thorax : breastplate thymbra : the herb savory. thymum : the herb thyme. tibi: (dat.) you / I can't give YOU anything but love, baby. timeo : to fear, be afraid, dread. timidus : fearful, timid. timor : fear, dread, object causing fear. titulus : label, title, placard. tolero : to tolerate, bear, endure, sustain. tollo sustuli sublatum : to lift up, raise, elevate, carry away. tondeo totondi tonsum : shave, shear, clip, mow, reap, browse. tonsor : barbar. Tornacense : Tournai. torqueo : to twist, curl, rack, torture, torment, distort, test. torrens : rushing, seething, burning, parched / a torrent. tot : (indecl.) so many. totidem : just as many. toties, toties : so often, so many times. toties, totiens : so many times, so often. toties : often, so many times. totus : whole, entire, complete, all. tracto : to drag, handle / treat, discuss, deal with. trado tradidi traditum : surrender / hand over / transmit, teach. traho traxi tractum : to drag, pull / derive, get. Traiectensium : Utrecht. Traiectum : Maastricht. trans : (+ acc.) across. transeo : to go over, pass over, cross over, go past. transfero transtuli translatum : carry across, transfer, convey. transmitto : to send, carry, or convey across. tredecim : (indecl.) thirteen Trellum : Tre Blon, castle in Hannonia. tremo : to tremble, shake, shudder. trepide : with trepidation, in confusion, tres tria : three. Treverim : Triers. tribuo : to give out, divide, allot, assign, grant, give, allow. tricesimus : thirtieth. triduana : lasting three days. triduanus : three days' duration, lasting three days. triduum : a period of three days. triginta : (inedl.) thirty. tripudio : to leap, jump, dance (as in a religious procession). tristis : sad, gloomy, downcast. Trium Fontium : Trois-Fontaines, Marne, Vitry-le-Francais. triumphus : triumphal procession, triumph. trucido : to kill cruelly, slay, butcher, massacre, slaughter. truculenter : (adv.) wildly, savagely, fiercely, cruelly, roughly tu : you / Old Heidelberg, you are the finest. tubineus : cone shaped tui : your yours / I read YOUR letter that said, dear John. tum : at that time, then / thereupon, in the next place. tumultus : uprising, disturbance, riot, tumult. tumulus : mound, grave, heap of earth. tunc : then, at that time. Tungris : Tongres. turba : uproar, disturbance / mob, crowd, multitude. turbatio : disturbance, confusion. turbatus : angered, exasperated / disturbed, restless, troubled. turbo, onis : hurricane. tornado, that which spins turbo : to disturb, upset, throw into disorder, confuse, unsettle. turpe : a disgrace. turpis : foul, ugly, disgraceful, morally corrupt. tutamen tutaminis : defense, protection tutis : protected, safe, secure. tyrannus : tyrant, absolute ruler. U uberrime : most luxuriantly, most abundantly, most fruitfully. ubi : when, as soon as / wherein, whereby, whereas. ulciscor : to take vengeance for, avenge / take vengeance on. ullus : any. ulterius : farther, more advanced, more remote. ultio ultionis : avenging, punishment, revenge. ultra : (+ acc.) : farther (than), more (than). ultra : (+ acc.) beyond, on the far side of. umbra : shade, shadow. umerus humerus : shoulder, upper arm. umquam : ever, at any time. una : (adv.) in one, together. unde : whence, from where / how, from whom. undique : from all sides, everywhere, on all sides, altogether. universe : generally, in general. universi : all together. universitas : the whole, total, universe, world / university. universum : universe, the world. universus : combined in one, whole, entire. unus : one, only one, at the same time / single, alone. urbanus : urban, urbane, pertaining to the city. urbs urbis : city. uredo : a plant blight. us : foreign, acquired. usitas : customary, usual. usque : all the way, up (to), even (to). ustilo : to burn (Herimannn, p. 308). ustulo : to burn, scorch, singe. usus : use, experience, skill, advantage. ut : (+ subj.) (result) so that, that. ut : (+ subj.) (purpose) in order that, to, that. ut : (+ indic.) when, as. ut : (+ subj.) (command) to, that. uter utrius : either of the two uterque : (gen. utriusque) both, each side, each party. Uticensium : Evroul. utilis : useful, advantageous, helpful. utilitas : utility, usefulness. utique : at any rate, certainly, at least. utor uti usus : to use, employ, possess, enjoy / associate with, find. utpote : seeing that, inasmuch as. utpote : adv. namely, seeing that, inasmuch as, since. utrimque : from both sides, on both sides. utroque : to both sides, in both directions / at each point. utrum : whether. utrum ... an : whether ... or. uxor : wife, spouse. V vaco : to be free from work, of a master, of property. vacuus : empty, devoid of, free from. vado : go, hasten, rush. vae : (interj.), woe, alas, woe to. valde : intensely, very much, extremely, greatly valens : strong, powerful, healthy / able, worthwhile. valeo valui valiturus : to be strong, have power, be well. valetudo : health. good health, bad health. validus : strong, mighty, powerful, exceeding. vallum : palisade, earthen wall, entrenchment, rampart. vapulus : flogged, beaten, knocked about. varietas : variety, differences, diversity. varius : various, varied. vehemens : violent, furious, impetuous. vehementer : violently, forcefully, strongly, exceedingly. vel : or, (adv.) even, actually, for example. velociter: quickly, rapidly, swiftly. velox : quick, rapid, swift, fast. velum : sail, covering, awning, curtain. velut : adv. just as, like, even as. Vendolius : Vendeuil. venia : grace, indulgence, favor, pardon, forgiveness. venio veni ventum : to come. ventito : to come often, to visit frequently. ventosus : full of wind, windy, breezy. ventus : wind, rumor, favor. ventus : wind. venustas : loveliness, charm, attractiveness, beauty. ver, veris : spring, the production of spring. verbera : (in pl.) blows, a beating, thrashing. verbum : word. vere : truly, really, actually, rightly. verecundia : feeling of shame, shame, bashfulness. vereor : to respect, fear, be in dread of, to be afraid. vergo : to bend, incline, verge, to draw to an end. veritas : truth. Vernandense : Vermandois. vero : in truth, indeed, to be sure / however. versus : line, verse. verto : to turn, turn around, turn up / to put to flight, rout. verto : to flee / interpret, understand / upset, overthrow. verumtamen verumptamen : notwithstanding, nevertheless. verus : true, real, proper, right. vesco, vescor : to feed, to eat. vesica : bladder, bladder-like tumor. vesper : evening star, evening. vespera : evening prayer, vespers. vespillo : undertaker. vester vestra vestrum : (pl.) your, yours. vestigium : footstep, trace, mark. vestio vestivi vestitum : to clothe. vestis : clothing, garment, covering, blanket, carpet, tapestry. vestrum vestri : your yours / you make sing about YOUR pretty gals. vetus : old. via : road, way, street. vicinus : neighbor / (med.) resident. vicissitudo: change, alteration. victor : victor, winner. victoria : victory. victus : living, manner of life / nourishment, food. videlicet : it is clear / (adv.) clearly, plainly, namely. videlicet : (adv.) (ironically) of course, to be sure. video vidi visum : to see, observe, understand, comprehend. videor : to be seen, seem, appear. viduata : deprived, widowed, bereft. viduo : to deprive vigilo : to be awake, watch, be vigilant / to keep vigil. vigor : vigor, liveliness. vilicus, villicus : pertaining to an estate, overseer, steward. vilis : cheap, worth little. vilitas : cheapness, low-price, worthlessness. villa : country house, country estate / (med.) manor, village. vinco vici victum : conquer, overcome, master, win, surpass, excel. vinculum : bond, fetter, tie. vindico (vindicatum) : claim, arrogate, assume, appropriate. vindico : to liberate, deliver / punish, avenge / claim, assume. vindico : to avenge, punish, liberate, deliver, protect. vinitor : vine-dresser (a man who prunes grape vines). vinum : wine. vir : man, hero, man of courage. virga : a green twig, rod, stick, wand, broom, streak, stripe. virgo : maiden, virgin, young girl. viridis : green. viriliter : manfully. virtus : manliness, excellence, character, worth, courage. vis : (sing.) violence / a large number, quantity, a force / nature vis vires : (pl.) force, power, strength, might, influence. viscus : flesh, internal organs, bowels, entrails, heart. vita : life, way of life. vitiosus : vicious, full of vice, corrupt. vitium : fault, vice, crime. vito : to avoid, shun. vivo vixi victum : to live, be alive. vix : scarcely, hardly, with difficulty, barely. vobis : (abl.) you / who knows more than YOU? I do! vobis : (dat.) you / I'm talkin' to YOU, yeah, talkin' 'bout Cindy. vociferor : to cry aloud, shout. voco in dubium: to call into question. voco : to call, summon, name invite. volaticus : winged, flying / inconstant, unreliable / flighty. volatilis: winged, flying / swift, rapid / fleeting, transitory. volens : willing, favorable. volo (sibi velle) : to mean, signify, denote. volo : to fly, speed, move rapidly. volo : to wish, want, will, ordain, suppose, maintain that, be willing. volubilis : (of speech) rapid, fluent, voluble. volubilis : rolling, revolving, turning around / changeable, inconstant. volubiliter : fluently. voluntarius : voluntary. voluntas : wish, will, inclination / good will. voluntas : last will, testament / meaning, sense. volup : agreeably, pleasantly. voluptarius : pleasant, one devoted to pleasure. voluptas : pleasure. voluptuosus : delightful, pleasurable. volutabrum : pigsty, slough. volva vulva : womb (particularly that of a sow). vomer : plowshare. vomica : ulcer, sore, boil / plague, curse. vomito : to vomit, vomit forth, throw up. vorago : chasm, pit, abyss. vorax : gluttonous, voracious. voro : to eat greedily, swallow up, consume, gorge oneself. vos : (acc.) you / I'll fight YOU all, then ... bring me giants! vos : you (pl) / YOU can't catch me, i'm the gingerbread man. votum : prayer, wish, desire / promise to God. voveo vovi votum : to promise to God, vow, pray for. vox vocis : voice, word / (med.) power, right, authority. vulariter : in the common way, ordinary manner. vulgaris : common, ordinary, usual. vulgivagus : wandering, vagrant, itinerant. vulgo : to spread, publish, impart, make accessible. vulgus : the common people, mob, rabble. vulnero : to wound, injure, hurt, harm. vulnus : wound. vulpes volpes : fox. vulticulus : look, aspect, appearance. vultuosus : grimacing, affected. vultur voltur vulturius volturius : vulture. vultus : the face. vultus : expression of the face, countenance, look, aspect. W Werumensium : Wittewierum. xiphias : sword-fish.